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Dr. Mićo Gaćanović M.Sc.Eng.

78000 Banja Luka, Sime Miljusa 92
Bosnia-Herzegovina

Tel: +387(0)51-306 767
E-Mail: bilchy@blic.net

Brussels Eureka 2003 | PhD Seminar, Banjaluka 2006

EL-1 N/S
Static Charge Elimination Device
for pour and traansport of petroleum and petroleum products, in-flammable gases and liquids, explosives and solid inflammable mate-rials

Part 1.1:


Mico GacanovicDear Friend,

Many years of thorough research, patience and uncertainty were needed before EL-1 N/S Type Device was born. The device now exists to the benefit and welfare of all of us. To create it, it took my devotion, as well as that of my associates - diligent and honest people, who believed in my work. All of them are the friends of mine, for which I feel an endless respect and love, and to whom I'd like to thank on this occasion, I - myself being only the first one to undersign the EL-1 N/S type device.
My family had power, will, faith, love and respect to understand me, for which I will always owe them eternal thanks.
You, however, who are to use this device and recommend it to others, will make it "live" and will give it a chance to "show that it can fulfil its task" - to eliminate static charge during analysed technological operations; therefore, I'd like to thank you for our future co-operation. To my potential customers I do wish success in business, for that success I'll consider mine, as well.

With respect, Your friend and co-operator, the author and manufacturer of EL-1 N/S type device

Mico Gacanovic, MS in Electrical Engineering
 

Consultants:
ZORAN RASEVIC, B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering
GOSTIMIR GACANOVIC, B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering
MIROSLAV MIKIC, B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering

Text Editing:
SLOBODAN POPOVIC, B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering

Graphical text processing & booklet cover design:
GOSTIMIR GACANOVIC, B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering

Author of an English Version:
DRAGICA BANJAC, B.A. & Permanent Court Interpreter for the English Language

Tekst lektorisao:
STANOJE PLAVSIC, prof

 

Contents
 

Introduction ..................................................................................................
37
1.0 PROBLEM SOLVED BY EL-1 N/S type DEVICE................................................. 38
1.1 About hazardous materials, and general survey of organisation and
      regula-tions regarding transport of hazardous material ..................................
38
1.2 General survey of regulations, standards, literature and institutions which deal with latent hazards caused by static charge during transport of hazardous ma-terials 40
     a) Regulations and standards....................................................................... 40
     b) Literature which deals with these problems ................................................ 40
          b-1 Pour and transport of petroleum and petroleum products 40
          b-2 Pour and transport of inflammable gases and liquids, explosive
               materials (ex-plosives), as well as of solid inflammable materials .........
40
     c) Significant institutions which deal with these problems ................................ 40
     c-1 International electrical commission (IEC) ................................................. 40
     c-2 European federation for chemical engineering (EFCE) ................................ 40
2.0 STATE OF TECHNIQUE AND SHORTCOMINGS OF PRESENT SOLUTIONS ............. 41
     a) by direct grounding ................................................................................ 41
     b) by "Ex" type switch grounding................................................................... 41
     c) by grounding conductor ........................................................................... 42
     d) by antistatic strip grounding .................................................................... 42
3.0 SHORT DESCRIPTION OF EL-1 N/S type DEVICE............................................ 44
4.0 TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EL-1 N/S type DEVICE .............................. 44
5.0 INSTRUCTIONS FOR DESIGNERS ................................................................. 45
6.0 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS OF EL-1 N/S type DEVICE .................................. 47
       6.1 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at refuelling.................................................. 47
       6.1.1 Car-refuelling spots............................................................................ 47
       6.1.2 Railway, ship or tanker and aircraft refuelling spots................................. 47
       6.2 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at reloading locations (loading and unload-ing)
           of explosives and of solid inflammable materials......................................
47
       6.3 Use of EL-1 N/S type device on truck-tanks, and on other dragged and
           attached vehicles during motion .............................................................
48
       6.4 Use of EL-1 N/S type device on truck-tanks (dragged and attached
           vehi-cles), on railway, ship or tankers, and aircraft-tanks at refuelling
           spots of terminal type ...........................................................................
48
7.0 MAINTENANCE, HANDLING, STORAGE AND INSPECTION OF EL-1 N/S type
       DEVICE
....................................................................................................
48
8.0 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF EL-1 N/S type DEVICE .................................... 49
9.0 HOW WAS EL-1 N/S type DEVICE BORN ....................................................... 50
10.0 SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF THE AUTHOR OF EL-1 N/S type DEVICE..................... 51
11.0 HOW TO ORDER EL-1 N/S type DEVICE ...................................................... 53
Part 2 ........................................................................................................... 57-77
- Hazardous materials for which we recommend use of EL -1 N/S type device.


 

Introduction

The purpose of this short text is to give information about the DEVICE FOR STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION DURING POUR AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, INFLAMMABLE GASES AND LIQUIDS, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS (EXPLOSIVES), AS WELL AS OF SOLID INFLAMMABLE MATERIALS of EL-1 N/S type.

Commercial name for this device is: EL-1 N/S type DEVICE.

This text also gives a brief description of former solutions which are used (or were used) to eliminate static charge, containing also short comments on shortcomings of given solu-tions.

EL-1 N/S type device has been designed and manufactured in order to satisfy valid regu-lations and standards, from the point of view of both design and purpose on the one side, and application during its use and exploitation on the other. It does not mean finitiveness when solving the problem of the static charge elimination during the before mentioned technological operations, but a contribution to the time we live in. We wish that the other authors find stimulus and creative basis in the EL-1 N/S type device, in order to produce even more successful solution for the static charge elimination during the above men-tioned technological operations.

Consequently, we use the EL-1 N/S type device in the hazardous areas, i.e. in those areas where there is a permanent or potential danger of developing of dangerous concentra-tions of inflammable liquids and gases vapours, as well as inflammable pulverous solid materials. It serves for static charge elimination, which appears when handling dangerous inflammable materials, which prevents development of cumulative discharge (sparkling) in hazardous areas. If we were not to eliminate static charge in hazardous areas, the phenomenon of cumulative discharge (sparkling) in hazardous areas would cause both fires and explosions, which would endanger human lives and material goods.

In technological and material sense of the word, the EL-1 N/S type device is neither more complex, nor more expensive than former solutions (of the same purpose), but is far more reliable and safer.
 


1.0 Problem solved by EL-1 N/S type device

Technological development causes abrupt expan-sion and demand of: petroleum and petroleum products, inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explosives), and solid inflammable ma-terials.
The consequences are latent (potential and per-manent) hazards which exist during pour and transport of the mentioned phases (liquid, gase-ous, pulverous, and solid phase), and are ex-pressed through fires and explosions.
Regulations which define the technologic procedure of pour and transport of the mentioned phases are unique for the whole world. Their amendments and implementation are in charge of the UNITED NATIONS (UN). The countries - members of the UN are obliged to carry out these regulations.
In spite of that we are witnesses of large scale accidents all over the world, which are caused by pour and transport of the mentioned phases, for the regulations given do not represent finiteness, but only a sort of thinking resulting from the times we are living in, and from the level of understand-ing and experience in this field.
Hence, among latent (both potential and perma-nent) hazards which occur during pour and trans-port of the mentioned phases, there are also haz-ards caused by static charge, being expressed by fires and explosions.
Problems of static charge with considered technologi-cal operations have been analysed so far, but not sufficiently, so that they still represent a great un-known for wider circle of experts. We must, however, admit, that the problem of static charge elimination, was not treated seriously enough, because it was believed that the problem of static charge elimination, with analysed technological operations, had long ago been solved.

Equally, those regulations which refer to static charge elimination problems, deploy their recom-mendations on the EARTHING solution of all those geometries where static charge is generated, be-ing the solution (measure like) for the static charge elimination, as well as the precaution for protection from static charge generation. The consequence of such way of thinking is an inevita-ble phenomenon of CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE (sparking) which, on the other hand, causes latent (potential and permanent) hazards, which arise from static charge, and they are FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS.
Static charge elimination and static charge genera-tion protection measure are two separate prob-lems, which should be observed as such. Eearthing is one of the protection measures for static charge generation, but not at the same time the measure for static charge elimination (we are talking about a special case of static charge elimi-nation by means of earthing).
The device for static charge elimination during pour of petroleum and petroleum products, in-flammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explosives), as well as of solid inflammable ma-terials, of EL1 N/S type, has given its contribu-tion to an approach towards static charge elimina-tion during technological operations, respecting former solutions and their authors.

EL-1 N/S type device represents an original solu-tion, both from the technical as well as from the scientific point of view. It is far more confident and more reliable solution from the standpoint of the static charge elimination, than the former ones. It replaces former solutions with mentioned technological operations, as follows:

a) solution for direct earthing of observed geometry,
b) solution for switch earthing in "Ex" (sin-gle-pole ridge switch) performance (Exd) II AT3 of observed geometry,
c) solution for earthing by means of earthing detector (DETEKTEUR DE MISE A LA TERRE type DU - 1E.ADF) of ob-served geometry,
d) antistatic strip on truck-tanks (dragged and attached vehicles).
1.1 About hazardous materials and general survey of or-ganisation and regulations on hazardous materials transport

Phenomenon of hazardous materials covers all those materials, which, during manufacture, han-dling, storage or usage, emit or create infectious, irritating, inflammable, explosive, corrosive, chok-ing, toxic, or other dangerous dusts, smokes, va-pours, or fibres, as well as harmful radiation in such quantities which may lead to health damage of those persons which get into contact with them, or may cause material damage of the prop-erty.
Number of hazardous materials in use in the world is extremely large, increasing from year to year. We are familiar with almost 7,000,000 (seven million) of various hazardous materials, 40,000 (forty thousands) of which are being used in lar-ger quantities, while with 816 (eight hundred and sixteen) various hazardous materials, during pour and transport as well as their handling, the static charge represents both potential and permanent danger, manifesting itself through fires and explo-sions (number of 816 dangerous materials is the number known to the author of the EL-1 N/S type device at the moment of writing of this text, the number increasing daily). The book titled "Haz-ardous materials for which we recommend use of EL-1 N/S type device; tabular survey;" Part 2:, gives tabular list of 816 various hazardous materi-als for which we recommend use of static charge elimination device, type: EL-1 N/S, during pour and transport.
Hence, we are talking here about 816 various hazardous materials which are easy to ignite, and are extremely inflammable (F marked), and explo-sive (E marked). During their pour, transport and handling, they are very likely to build up concen-trations of explosive mixtures of gases and va-pours (whose areas are defined by zones of haz-ard: "0 ZONE", "1 ZONE", or "2 ZONE", all in ac-cordance with JUS N.S8.007 standards), concen-tration of explosive atmosphere of piled dust ( whose areas are defined as "11 ZONE" zone of hazard (according to JUS N.S8.008 standard) or "21 ZONE" (an international proposal)), and con-centration of settled dust (whose areas are de-fined by "12 ZONE" zone of hazard (according to JUS N.S8.008) or "22 ZONE" (an international proposal)). Mentioned concentrations may ignite at small ignition energy Wp (or spark energy Wiskre). It is known that Wp= Wiskre - 0,4 Wmin [mJ], where Wmin - is minimal ignition energy of explo-sive and inflammable mixture (of gases, vapours, and dust) [mJ].A spark can be caused by static charge, which is inevitable consequence of the production proce-dure, which in this case, means pour and trans-port of hazardous materials resulting in double layer contact (EL-1 N/S type device will in fact eliminate static charge in such cases preventing occurrence of such undesired consequence).
Hazardous materials are used in all industrial branches, as the raw material necessary for the production of: artificial materials and fibres, fuels, rubbers, insulation materials, medicines, insecti-cide, paints, varnishes, detergents, explosives, artificial fertilisers, plant protection means, etc.; thus, it is impossible to renounce their application. However, it is possible to use them in a more rational and safer way, with better organisation, without side effects characterising present level of development and organisation.
Protection measures for safe use of hazardous materials are determined depending on: location, space, and facility where handling of hazardous materials take place, type of facility construction, technological procedure, type of electrical, gas and other installations, storage ways, location for loading and unloading, as well as pour, transport ways and means, chemical and physical properties of dangerous materials, as well as of needed type and quantity of fire extinguishers.Hence, hazardous materials' matters had been regulated by international law regulations and agreements which regulate their production, us-age, transport, pour, and storage.
The issue of static charge elimination with haz-ardous materials has great importance, and be-comes OBLIGATORY in the mentioned regulations and agreements.
In our consideration and description of the EL-1 N/S type device for static charge elimination, we shall analyse those materials which are used dur-ing pour and transport of petroleum and petro-leum products, inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explosives), as well as solid inflammable materials - all of these being stated and named in the tables; see also "Hazardous materials with which we recommend use of EL-1 N/S type device; tables", Part 2:, by the same author.
Within the council of the UNITED NATIONS (UN), New York, U.S.A., the board of specialists for hazardous materials transport (ST/SG/AC.10) has been established, as the permanent body ECOSOC, or better known under the name of: Economic and Social Council, which gives recom-mendations regarding hazardous materials' trans-port ("orange book" - that is why orange has been used as basic warning colour when handling haz-ardous materials).
The body named ECOSOC has established organi-sations - branches, which deal with mentioned issues, as follows:

  • air traffic: ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation (has been established, taking care of technical instructions for hazardous materials air transport;

  • naval traffic: IMO (International Maritime Organisation (has been established, taking care of the Law on maritime transport of haz-ardous materials (IMDG);

  • road traffic: ECE/Europe (Economic Com-mission for Europe) has been established by UN, which takes care of European agreement on international transport of hazardous mate-rials (ADR);

  • rail traffic: OCTI (Central Office for Interna-tional Railway Transport) has been established, considering International regulations on railway transport of hazardous materials (RID);

  • river traffic: two organisations were estab-lished: ECE/ONU, which take care of declara-tions regarding transport of dangerous goods along European rivers (AND, while RHINE or-ganisation cares about declarations regarding dangerous goods' transport along the Rhine river (ADNR)).

1.2 Survey of regulations, stan-dards, literature, and insti-tutions which consider la-tent hazards caused by the static charge during hazard-ous materials transport

a) Regulations and standards
The most significant regulations and standards which deal with these issues are: BS (British Standard) 6651; 5501; 5345; 5958; 2050; 5501, then NFPA (National Fire Protection Agency (USA)) 77; NFPA 78; NFPA 88, GOST standards (U.S.S.R.) and ADR (1985, ISBN 92-1-139017), RID/RSD, SDR, IMDG - CODE, ICAO - TI, AND, ADNR, GGVS, JUS N.S8 and JUS Z.CO

b) Literature dealing with these issues:
b-1 Pour and transport of petroleum and pe-troleum products
b-1.1
THE AVOIDANCE OF ELECTROSTATIC HAZARDS IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY, Journal of electrostatics, volume 27 (1992), by H.L.Walmsley.
b-1.2 W. M. Bustin & W. G. Dukek: ELEKTROSTATIC IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY, Southampton, 1983.
b-1.3 Joseph M. Crowley : FUNDAMENTALS OF APPLIED ELECTROSTATICS, New York, 1986.
b-1.4 J.S.Mills & R.C.Oldham: EVALUATION AND PREVENTION OF ELECTROSTATIC HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL TANKER OPERATIONS, New York, 1983.
b-1.5 M. Gacanovic: EVALUATION OF HAZARDS AND ENDANGER FROM THE STATIC CHARGE IN AREAS WITH EXPLOSION HAZARDS, magazine: "Applied science", Belgrade, 1989.
b-1.6 M. Gacanovic : EL1 N/S type DEVICE FOR STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION, 40th WORLD FAIR OF INVENTION, RESEARCH, AND INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION, Anspach Centre Brussels, BRUSSELS EUREKA 1991, Brussels, 1991.
b-1.7 Project titled : STUDYING OF STATIC CHARGE PHENOMENON IN THE CONDITIONS OF EXPLOITATION, PROCESSING, TRANSPORT, HANDLING, AND STORAGE OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE PETROLEUM REFINERY Bosanski Brod, Energoinvest Sarajevo and the Fac-ulty of Electrical Engineering Sarajevo, the Republic scientific institution, and the city of Sarajevo (Energoinvest)) scientific insti-tution, the scientific and research project, Sarajevo, 1987.
b-1.8 Project titled : "VRELO" ("WELL") - the scientific and research project, SSNO-SFRY Belgrade and the Faculty of Electrical En-gineering, Sarajevo, Sarajevo-Belgrade, 1981.

b-2 Pour and transport of inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explo-sives), and of solid inflammable materials:
b-2.1
Instructions and the catalogue of the com-pany: FLUKE Chemie AG, Switzerland, 1990.
b-2.2 Instructions and the catalogue of the com-pany: HERAEUS Feinchemikalien und For-schungbedarf GmbH, Deutschland, 1990.
b-2.3 International conventions on pour and transport, as well as of storage of hazard-ous materials, archive of "Official paper of SFRY", 1990.

c) Significant institutions dealing with these issues:
c-1
International Electrical Commission (IEC) has formed, for the first time (since its ex-istence) the subcommittee 15D within the Committee 15 (IEC 15D, with a head office in Geneva), in the period of Nov./Dec., 1991. This subcommittee was to co-ordinate (for the first time) the activities from the domain of electrostatic applica-tion and was to treat the above mentioned issues, afterwards giving instructions for making of standards and regulations to the IEC member countries.
c-2 European Federation of Chemical Engi-neering (EFCE)
Static charge issues in European countries are being solved by the section of EUROPEAN FEDERATION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING.

2.0 The state of technic and shortcom-ings of present solutions
As it was said in item 1.0 (The problem solved by the device), static charge elimination with consid-ered technological operations (during pour and transport of petroleum and petroleum products, inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explosives), as well as of solid inflammable ma-terials), is done by:

a) direct earthing of observed geometry (of a volume container or a tank);

C o m m e n t: it is the first solution ordered by the Legislator (or set up as an obligation) by means of Technical and Legal regulations, through instructions about static charge protection. (In some countries regulations which consider certain technologies, do consider static charge protection, as well.)
Under the notion of static charge protection, the Leg-islator, in his regulations, considers both the protec-tion measures and the elimination measures.
Shortcoming of this solution is the possibility of CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE occurrence (sparking), both on the outer and on the inner part of the tank (or volume container).
If power balance between the electrostatic energy power heap: "associated earthing conductor" and the volume container, is done by means of "short bond - circuit"(or by direct earthing) by means of a cable (PF/J cable), cumulative discharge (spark-ing) will occur.
Dangerous consequences of such a solution are possibilities to cause fires and explosions, being the consequence of a latent (potential and perma-nent) hazard caused by the static charge. Realising that such a solution does not represent finiteness in the approach to solve the problem, the Legislator gives an order to apply the solution pre-sented under b) of the item 2.0, which is a solution by means of a single pole ridge switch, of "Ex" type.

b) earthing of observed geometry (of a vol-ume container or a tank) by means of an "Ex" type switch, unpenetrating armor (Exd) II AT3 (the product named a sin-gle-pole ridge switch, of "Ex" type, of unpenetrating armor (Exd) II AT 3 - ex-plosion proof type of protection).


C o m m e n t:
This solution is, in fact, an im-proved solution in comparison with a direct earthing solution. Improvement consists in avoid-ance of outside cumulative discharge on the outer part the volume container (while the problem of an inside cumulative discharge still remains), un-der the condition that the employees obey techni-cal handling procedure with a single-pole ridge switch of "Ex" type.
Hence, static charge elimination by means of a single-pole ridge switch of "Ex" type, is a com-promising solution, both from the technical and from the manipulative standpoint.
While the single-pole ridge switch of "Ex" type is in the position of an electrical connection with the outer part of the volume container (tank) with the earthing conductor, there is the possibility for an inside cumulative discharge (sparking), inside of the volume container (tank).
(Inside the tank there are concentrations of explo-sive mixtures, which may be ignited by a low en-ergy spark.) Electrical connection between the switch of "Ex" type and the earthing conductor is being realised both physically and electrically, and is permanently present during the pour. Possibility of occurrence of latent (potential and permanent) hazards, caused by the static charge and mani-fested through FIRES and EXPLOSIONS is great.
Connection and disconnection of the switch of "Ex" type and the volume container (tank), be-longs to the procedure of technical handling, which is done by the employees. An error in the handling creates the possibility of occurrence of latent (potential and permanent) hazards, caused by the static charge. Hence, sparking may occur, followed by ignition of explosive mixtures concen-tration. Shortcoming of this solution by means of the switch of "Ex" type is that this solution is con-ditioned by a human factor, too.
Time of discharge relaxation - energetic equalisa-tion between power heaps of electrostatic energy is very short, resulting in occurrence of cumulative discharge inside the volume container (tank).
With due respect to the solution given, as well as to its author, and also to the results this solution has brought about in a scientific, technical, and practical part, we may say that it does not repre-sent a final technical solution, but only and only a technical move in regard to the direct earthing solution, under the condition that the rules of technical handling procedure by means of this switch were obeyed, and which also depends on the human factor (employees).
In need of other solution, this solution is still be-ing applied, but the Legislator is aware of the shortages this solution has. In fact, the Legislator "awaits new solution", and we are offering and giving a proposal for such a new solution - the EL-1 N/S type device.
The given solution is not being recommended anymore, neither is it applied anywhere.

c) earthing of an observed geometry (volume container or a tank) by an earthing detec-tor (DETEKTEUR DE MISE A LA TERRE type DU - 1E.ADF), an unpenetrating armor for explosion proof protection (Exd), while an earthing detector measuring circle has been certified for SELFSECURITY - a kind of explosion proof protection (Exi) (according to JUS N.S8.301, i.e. IEC 79-11 (Part 11: Construction and test of intrinsically - safe and associated apparatus)).

C o m m e n t: an earthing detector is actually designed "more" to satisfy operating comfort at the refuelling location (of a terminal type). Oper-ating comfort consists in performing (in an electri-cal sense) a blockade and an unblockade of the refuelling pump. This blockade and unblockade of the pump are done according to "parallel earthing" logic.
The static charge elimination measure is per-formed by means of direct earthing of a volume container (tank), starting from the temporal mo-ment of the tank connection, t=.5 sec, up to the end of refuelling. From the temporal moment t=0 up to t=.5 sec, tank earthing is being done through the resistance (from 1.5 kOhm + alternat-ing P2 resistance (5 kOhm), when, actually, the static charge elimination effect is "best being real-ised".
Existing dangers, shown by means of latent (potential and permanent) dangers, caused by the static charge, are CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE (both outside and inside of a volume container - tank), which are FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS. Ignition and explosion of explosive mixture concentration is caused by sparking coming from static charge.
Operation with an earthing detector is practically impossible if the refuelling is done under frosty (or heavy rain) conditions. Since an aim was to provide operating comfort at the pour location, in order to automatically lock and unlock the pump, the problem of frost was being solved by means of (as the designer had decided) the MAGNET FOR FROST (hoarfrost).
The magnet for frost has a role to "lie" to the read relay in the electronic block of the detector, and to AT ONCE connect the tank, over an earthing detector, to the earthing conductor (meaning to perform direct earthing).
It is performed so that the employee places the frost magnets on the previously determined place on the detector (marked by red marks), unlocking actually the refuelling pump in this way.
Performing this, NO ONE ACTUALLY CARES about static charge elimination. The truth judgement was created that EARTHING (?) has become the measure for the static charge elimination, and that the earthing detector will eliminate the static charge (?), which is not true.
We may frankly say that the EARTHING DETECTOR represents worse solution for the static charge elimination than the solution with the same purpose named a SINGLE-POLE RIDGE SWITCH of "Ex" type. It is known, and thus, in the earthing detector technical documentation, there is an important note that the earthing detector should be connected to the tank when it (the tank) is "electrostatically discharged".
(documentation: Measuring systems - Energoinvest, Sarajevo, documentation number 2513400498 ap-proved in Sarajevo, on 05/09/1986 and the attached document TSK 8250 entitled "INDIVIDUAL TESTING number 0889", dated 12/22/1985, issued by Ener-goinvest, Measuring systems, Sarajevo, on the baof the document issued by "S" Commission (the Commission for explosion proof protection, of the Federal Institute for Standardisation, Belgrade, YU), no. 15599 dated 12/22/1985 in accordance with N.S8.01.T83074).
Knowing that the solution for static charge elimi-nation by means of an EARTHING DETECTOR, has got the same shortcomings as the direct earthing solution, and knowing that following this solution one achieves only and only an operating comfort at the refuelling locations, from the point of view of the pump blockade and unblockade - we are herewith proposing and offering a new solution named EL-1 N/S type device.
Blockade and unblockade of the pump, in an elec-trical sense of the word, may be solved, at the pour locations, by another technical logic.
So far the earthing detectors were installed at the pour locations under the name terminals.
The earthing detector is the most often seen at the TERMINALS for petroleum products, TERMINALS for the liquid gas, TERMINALS for inflammable liquids, and on other similar places. It operates if connected to a 220 (V) mains, while an EL-1 N/S type device does not need mains' connection.

d) earthing of a truck-tank (of dragged and attached vehicles) which is immovable or movable - by means of an ANTISTATIC STRIP.

C o m m e n t: however, during the motion of a truck-tank (dragged or attached vehicle), static charge is generated, which means that a static charge elimination measure should be performed.
This operation is done by means of a "rubber" strip - "I" formed (when the strip is released), commercially named an ANTISTATIC STRIP. By adding certain components to the rubber, in order to achieve desired resistance (electrical resis-tance), lower than 100,000 Ohms, this rubber (for antistatic strip), gets completely different me-chanical and temperature features, in comparison to a standard kind of rubber. The result we get after fastening an antistatic strip to the truck-tanks (of dragged or attached vehicles), is that the strip itself bends in the "J" letter form, under the conditions of microclimatic influences.
While in the "I" letter form, the strip has got a task to provide an electrical connection between the truck-tank (and also dragged and attached vehicle) and the road.
By bending in a "J" letter shape, the antistatic strip does not perform its task, and practically has no use whatsoever. (Bending of strip in a "J" letter shape is an inevitable consequence of its ageing.)
When the antistatic strip is in the "correct state", i.e. it takes an "I" letter form, static charge elimina-tion "should be performed" by earthing of a truck-tank (also of dragged and attached vehicles) by means of an antistatic strip. It means that an electric connection between the truck-tank (and a dragged and attached vehicle) and the road, should be ef-fected. Electrical resistance which exists in such an electrical circuit, is in fact the antistatic strip resis-tance, and the resistance of the contact between the strip and the road. The sum of these electrical resis-tances presents, in an electrostatic sense of the word, a neglectable value of an electrical resistance, which is in fact (from the static charge elimination aspect), a short circuit. Dangers which may occur by use of such a solution for static charge elimination, are as follows:
• when an antistatic strip is in a released posi-tion, i.e. in the letter "I" form, it has an elec-trical connection with the road. Danger that may occur is CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE, both of an outside and an inside volume container - truck-tank or dragged and attached vehicle which is being considered.
Hence, static charge elimination is being done according to the truth judgement logic by EARTHING (?). Earthing is not the elimination measure, but a special case of a measure for static charge elimination, with the presence of a cumulative discharge (sparking) danger.
• when an antistatic strip is in a bent position (which is a frequent and an inevitable case), i.e. in the "J" letter form, than such a strip HAS NO USE WHATSOEVER.
We have stated the antistatic strip shortcomings. The Legislator has become aware of these short-comings. Having no better solutions, and waiting for new solutions, the ANTISTATIC STRIP solution is still being used. We are offering and proposing here to solve these problems by means of an EL-1 N/S type device.
Hence, static charge elimination solution for the moving truck-tanks, as well as for dragged and attached vehicles, can be achieved by application of an EL-1 N/S type DEVICE, where we have, instead of an antistatic strip, the use of a copper made braid (it's also possible to have a steel made braid), which is connected to an outer part of a truck -tank, or of a dragged and attached vehicle, through an EL-1 N/S type device.
I m p o r t a n t n o t e :
The Legislator demands that all truck-tanks (dragged and attached vehicles) which transport petroleum and petroleum products, inflammable gases and liquids, have a static charge elimination device. It has been defined through Regulations (under item 1.2)a)) as an obligation - for unless they have a static charge elimination device, they will not be allowed to take part in public traffic, neither can they enter the refuel terminal. This device is used to connect the truck-tank (dragged or attached vehicle), to the earthing (separately), at the refuel terminals, since it has long been known that the earthing detector cannot solve the static charge elimination problem (but only serves to provide operational comfort - see item c.)).
For the time being, a single-pole ridge switch of an "Ex" type is being used at the truck-tanks (dragged and attached vehicles), (for explosion proof protection (Exd)II AT3 - see item b.)).
We are proposing, recommending and offering, herewith, a replacement by a new technical and safer solution - an EL-1 N/S type device.
However, during pour of the considered phases in aircraft, railway, and naval traffic, the EL-1 N/S type device may be used for the safe and reliable static charge elimination, in the way already de-scribed. (When solving problems of the static charge elimination, in the air, railway, and naval traffic, please consult the author of this device or a specialist in the field of an applied electrostatics - static electricity, due to specific technological operations.

3.0 Brief description of an EL-1 N/S type device

EL-1NS For Static Charge EliminationEL-1 N/S type device is applied for static charge elimination at pour and transport of petroleum and petroleum products, inflammable gases and liquids, explosives, and solid inflammable materials. Static charge occurrence is an inevitable procedure, as the consequence of a double layer (friction) contact of the mentioned media with the piping walls, filters, pumps, containers, and similar. As already stated, latent (potential and permanent) dangers caused by static charge with considered technological opera-tions, are fires and explosions.
According to the law regulations (NFPA, RID/RSD, ADR/SDR, IMDG-CODE, ICAO - TI, ADNR and oth-ers), the use of such devices is necessary with truck-tanks, railway tanks, maritime and aircraft means of transportation, at the refuel terminals of the above mentioned phases (solid, liquid, pulver-ous, and gaseous), and in technological processes (in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry, the mining industry, the industry of paints and var-nishes, and similar).
It replaces the existing solutions in this field of application, as are the single-pole ridge switch of "Ex" type (of (Exd) protection II AT3), the earthing detector (DETEKTEUR DE MISE A LA TERRE type DU - 1E.ADF, the unpenetrating armor (Exd) for explosion proof protection, while the measuring circle for detector earthing was certi-fied for a kind of explosion proof protection SELFSECURITY (Exi) and antistatic strip.
The device was manufactured in the explosion proof protection Exi (Exib) system. The device was manu-factured to comply with the unpenetrating armor (Exd) protection system conditions, while the measur-ing circle for grounding is being certified for the self-security Exib kind of explosion proof protection (and if needed, it may also be manufactured for the Exia self-security protection).
In an anti-corrosion protection system, while op-erating with cathode, as well as an anode protec-tion, both active and passive, the EL-1 N/S type device is compatible with other accessible devices of such a system.


4.0 Technical Characteristics of EL-1N/S Type Device

• manufacturer - author: MICO GACANOVIC, MS of EE, Banjaluka
• device protection system:
SELFSECURITY Exi (Exib, or, if ordered, also Exia) in accordance with IEC 79-11, confirmation number: 001-042/91 dated 08/30/1991 issued by the Protection Institute, Banjaluka;
UNPENETRATING ARMOR (Exd) for II AT1 and II AT3, applications with Federal Institute for Standardisa-tion, Belgrade, YU, number: Up-3/1-04-0156/2 dated 06/17/1993.
• measuring circle for earthing, manufactured in compliance with explosion proof protection, JUS N.S8.3301 SELFSECURITY Exi (Exib, and if ordered also for Exia).
• EL-1 N/S type device was designed for static charge elimination, at pouring from or into volume com-partments (one compartment being the whole), up to the volume size V= 200,000 (l), located above the ground.
type of the device: without an outside supply, performed in the form of a PASSIVE DEVICE.
operating temperature: -30 to +60 C degrees.
implementation place: "ZONE 2" HAZARDOUS ZONE (in accordance with JUS N.S8.007) and "ZONE 22" (in accordance with JUS N.S8.008), located above the ground (marked II).
operating cable length: PF/J 1 x 10 (mm2); 10 (m).
• total weight of the device with accessing components: cca 9.0 kg
size of the device kit: 400 x 380 x 220 (mm).
hanging of the device kit (with its support and protection roof, necessary cables of PF/J x 10 (mm2) type, (10 + 1)(m) length and crocodile clips)) is done on a galvanised pipe - pillar ø2.5" (2.5 (inches)), H = 1.0 (m) height painted in turns (starting from the ground): orange - white ((2 + 2) x 0.25 (cm)).
connec tion of a device to the FeZn strip of the earthing device: done on the pipe - pillar for hanging of the EL-1 N/S type device.

5.0 Instructions for designers

EL-1 N/S type device has been designed and rec-ommended for such technological operations as are pour and transport of petroleum and petro-leum products, inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explosives(, and solid in-flammable materials, where it is necessary to eliminate static charge.

The performance of EL-1 N/S type device is such that it can be used as the protection measure and elimination measure for static charge.

EL-1 N/S type device may reliably eliminate static charge up to the volume size of 200,000 (litres). It means that pouring from or into volume com-partments of up to 200,000 (litres) of volume size, if installed above the ground, can be done. For sizes of volume (V) compartments larger than 200,000 (l), it is necessary to contact the special-ist in the field of applied electronics. With larger volume sizes it is necessary to use more EL-1 N/S type devices, which in fact is the case with naval, (tankers), railway, or aircraft refuelling locations.

In case of several volume compartments used, as with railway or ship tanks (both sea and river ship tanks), each of the tanks during refuelling procedure should be at-tached to its EL-1 N/S type device.

(The question of static charge elimination with large stable tanks (with or without a floating roof) is not possible to be solved by use of an EL-1 N/S type device. Such prob-lem is to be solved by another EL-1 "family" type device.)

At refuelling places of the "petrol pump" type, we recommend use of at least two EL-1 N/S type devices. One of them is to eliminate static charge from the truck-tank, and the other one from the dragged or attached vehicles during pouring from or into one of the mentioned compartments. It has been set up as a legal obligation.
Each motor vehicle fuel supplying station ("petrol pump") is characterised, among others, by the V volume size, of the fuel storage. The number of needed EL-1 N/S type devices, directly depends on the V volume. Larger volumes have more refu-elling places, which increases also the need for larger number of EL-1 N/S type devices.
At refuelling terminals, each refuelling place for pouring from or into the volume compartment, has to have on EL-1 N/S type device installed.
At reloading places (loading and unloading) of explosives and solid inflammable materials, each loading place has to have one EL-1 N/S type de-vice installed.
EL-1 N/S type device is installed above the ground (marked II) in hazard zone "ZONE 2" in accordance with JUS N.S8.007 (Classification of hazardous zones for inflammable gases and vapours), and in "ZONE 22" (an old mark is "ZONE 11" or "ZONE 12" or "ZONE 22"), in accordance with JUS N.S8.008 (Classi-fication of hazardous areas in case of inflammable dusts).
Installation place for EL-1 N/S type device is be-ing prepared in the following way: when we de-termine the device installation place, we bring an FeZn strip (25x4 mm) up to that place; the strip is to be connected to the earthing device or to the common earthing device of the object considered. On the same location we define digging in of the galvanised and coated pipe ø2.5"(inches) - the pillar, and at 1.0 (m) height above the ground, we fasten an EL-1 N/S type device with a metal clamp ø2.5"(inches) with two M8 metal screws. Concrete foot inside the ground for an installation of the pipe - pillar, of h=1.0 (m) and the length of the pipe within the concrete are to be defined by the designer (our recommendation is 20 (cm)), or else the pillar itself may be ordered by the EL-1 N/S type device manufacturer. The above ground part of the pipe (the pillar), is to be coated first by the protection paint, and then, starting from the ground: 25 (cm) of orange, 25 (cm) of white, 25 (cm) of orange, and 25 (cm) of white - the Law regulation which deals with hazardous materials problems.
At 30 (cm) above the ground, an FeZn strip should be brought and attached to the pipe ø2.5"(pillar). At the height of approx. 50 (cm) on the pillar (pipe ø2.5"), a rack for the cable PF/J 1 x 10 (mm2) and the crocodile clip should be fastened. With an automatic winder, we do not need the rack, since an automatic winder would wind the PF/J cable automatically).
FeZn strip attachment spot on the pillar should have a hole ø6 (x3) for screw attachment (or a cross-like piece, JUS M B1 601). FeZn strip has holes on itself, of ø6 (x2), which should be made with necessary spaces between and among the holes. From the top of the hole ø6 (x1) a cable foot of 10 (mm2) is fastened for the cable PF/J 1x10 (mm2). (The place where FeZn strip is fas-tened is one of the measuring spots for the resis-tance measurement of that earthing device). The pillar may be delivered, and may also be made in the above described way.
A complete device is to be fastened on to the pil-lar (pipe ø2.5") by a metal clamp of ø2.5" with two M8 screws, each. (If it is necessary for the customer to have the pillar (complete, coated) delivered with the device, it should be stated so in the order.)
The work protection measures have fully been respected, for there is no possibility of high volt-age occurrence on an EL-1 N/S type device (since the device is not electrically supplied). It is neces-sary to install an EL-1 N/S type device in the lightning-conductor protection zone at the refuel-ling locations. Neither can the employees at the refuelling spot, norcan the visitors at the refuel-ling spot, get hurt or killed by the EL-1 N/S type device.
From the fire protection measures' point of view, an EL-1 N/S type device represents no danger, since its character is passive. In fact, the device is made in an explosion proof protection perform-ance, and operates only during operation of static charge elimination - it performs power equalisa-tion of electrostatic energy between the consid-ered power heaps under control, in order to avoid cumulative discharge, and after the elimination is over, the device is in the stand still state (operat-ing condition).
It is necessary to check and to functionally test the EL-1 N/S type device each 12 months from an authorised institution, or by an authorised person (specialist in the field of applied electrostatics - static charge, who are authorised by the manufac-turer of EL-1 N/S type device).

Here are some terms used in this text:

pouring locations - places where inflammable gases or liquids are poured from or into truck-tanks, railway-tanks, ship (tankers) and aeroplane tanks.
pouring spot - is a part of the pouring location aimed for filling or emptying of larger number of volume compartments with liquid or gaseous phase.
refuelling of hazardous materials - means fuelling (in or out of the volume compartment) of liquid and gaseous phases.
transport of hazardous materials - refers to the transport of all kinds of phases in the road, railway, maritime, and air traffic.
hazardous materials' phase may be: a liquid, gaseous, solid, and pulverous one.
liquid phase of the considered hazardous materials - in our case refers to the petroleum and petro-leum products, as well as to other inflammable liquids.
gaseous phase of the considered hazardous materials - in our case refers to inflammable gases.
solid phase of the considered hazardous materials - in our case refers to solid inflammable and explosive materials.
pulverous phase of the considered hazardous materials - in our case refers to various solid in-flammable materials in pulverous form.
terminal - is a place where fuelling of inflammable liquids and gases in larger quantities takes place.
reloading of inflammable solid and pulverous and explosive materials - refers to loading and unloading of the mentioned materials at locations approved for this purpose.

6.0 Operating instructions for EL-1 N/S type device

Use and installation of EL-1 N/S type device is made in compliance with the "Regulation book on technical norms for protection from static charge", ("Official paper of SFRY" no. 62/73, article 86, and also with other similar regulations in the world (see item 1.2.)a).


6.1 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at pouring location

Use of EL-1 N/S type device at pouring location refers to the use of this device in the standstill state of the dragged and attached vehicles. Technological opera-tion which takes place at that time is pour-ing/refuelling of the liquid and gaseous phase.


6.1.1 Car - fuelling spots

a) When a truck-tank vehicle, comprising a liquid or gaseous phase (petroleum or petro-leum products, inflammable gases or liq-uids), comes to the fuelling spot, it is neces-sary to turn the truck-tank engine off, no matter whether filling or emptying is to take place.
b) Having done the action stated under a), the "crocodile" clip should be taken by hand, and the cable PF/J 1x10 (mm2), going from the EL-1 N/S type device to the truck-tank, slowly unwound. The cable unwinding may either be hand-done from the rack, or auto-matically done by means of an automatic winder. (However, the cable PF/J 1x10 (mm2) should have been wound on the racks or on an automatic winder, before perform-ing this action.)
c) Fasten the "crocodile" clip on the sprout (aimed for that purpose), on the truck-tank (dragged or attached vehicle), and start with fuelling (filling or emptying) of a liquid or a gaseous phase.
d) Having done the fuelling of the liquid or gaseous phase, it is necessary to unfasten the "crocodile" clip off the truck-tank (dragged or attached vehicle), the cable PF/J 1 x 10 (mm2) is to be wound on the rack or on an automatic winder, aimed for that pur-pose. Place the "crocodile" clip away, to its previous location.
e) Having performed the operations under a), b), c), and d), we may finish the fuelling of the liquid and gaseous phase and allow the truck-tank to start going in desired direction.

In case that the customer may want to have a "crocodile" clamp instead of a clip delivered with the EL-1 N/S type device, that should be pointed out in an order. Also, if the customer wants to have an automatic winder for the cable PF/J 1x10 (mm2), delivered with the device, it should be stated in the order (the device will then be marked: m.EL-1 N/S).
 

6.1.2 Railway, ship or tankers, and aircraft fuelling spots

EL-1 N/S type device is used with tanks (volume compartments - as a whole), at railway, ship or tankers, and aircraft fuelling spots in the same way as with the car fuelling spots - described under 6.1.1).
The designer may install more EL-1 N/S type de-vices at one fuelling spot. If one volume com-partment - as a whole - is being considered, and it has been attached to several EL-1 N/S type de-vices, then the fuelling may start (or stop), at the very moment when all the devices are connected (or separated) from the volume compartment.
The same applies to the case of only one or more dragged or attached vehicles. Each of the dragged or attached vehicles has its own volume compart-ment, but if one compartment is being fuelled, all volume compartments of dragged vehicles should be connected by means of their individual EL-1 N/S type device.

6.2 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at reloading (loading and unloading) of explosives and solid inflammable materials

The usage procedure of the EL-1 N/S type device at the reloading (loading and unloading) spots of explosives and of solid inflammable materials is the same as stated under 6.1.1).

6.3 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at truck-tanks, and on other dragged and attached vehi-cles during motion

The Legislator asks for static charge elimination dur-ing motion of truck-tanks and of other dragged and attached vehicles. This is being done by use of the EL-1 N/S type device, in the way as to use the copper or steel-made rope, cross-section 35 (mm2) (or big-ger) - instead of an ANTISTATIC STRIP -, and to connect this rope with the volume compartment, over an EL-1 N/S type device. For more detailed instruc-tions, please contact the specialist in the field of ap-plied electrostatics.
The same problem is encountered with the vehicles which transport explosives and solid inflammable materials, which means that what has been stated under this paragraph also refers for that case. The question of the usage of an EL-1 N/S type device with aircraft, ship and tankers, and railway tanks during motion, is the question to be solved by a spe-cialist in the field of applied electrostatics - static charge.

6.4 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at truck-tanks (dragged and attac-hed vehicles), railway, ship or tankers, and aircraft tanks, at fuelling spots of the terminal type

According to Law regulations, each transportation vehicle (dragged and attached ), must have an EL-1 N/S type device for static charge elimination, fastened on itself, if it comes to a terminal for the considered phases (solid, liquid, gaseous, and pulverous). For that purpose, in use today is a solution named a single-pole ridge switch of "Ex" type (shortcomings of which were listed under 2.0 - b) of this brochure).
For that purpose an EL-1 N/S type device may be used. The usage of an EL-1 N/S type device is done according to item 6.1.) with a difference that it gets fastened to an earthing conductor (FeZn strip) by means of a crocodile clip or a clamp.
Hence, when a truck-tank enters a refinery, fuel-ling terminals for petroleum and petroleum prod-ucts, as well as for gases, or if the vehicles enter storage or manufacturing areas for transport of inflammable liquids or the storages of explosives and solid inflammable materials, - these vehicles must have a static charge elimination device. It is a legal obligation. The same goes for the railway, ship or tankers, and aircraft tanks.


There are no special demands for maintenance of EL-1 N/S type device. It will be sufficient to study necessary instructions and documentation about an EL-1 N/S type device, which is enclosed with the device, and then to open the book on mainte-nance and inspection of an EL-1 N/S type device. It will satisfy the demands for maintenance of this device.
Care demands for an EL-1 N/S type device are: regular transport and storage as well as regular maintenance and handling during its exploitation, in compliance with demands referring to electrical devices of an "Ex" kind of performance.

7.0 Maintenance, handling, storage, and inspection of EL-1 N/S type device

Handling itself with an EL-1 N/S type device causes no special problems for those who use this device. It is only necessary to study the instruc-tions and documentation which follow the device. In an internal organisation of the company where an EL-1 N/S type device is used, there should be one employee who is to be given the following tasks:

7.1 register each usage of an EL-1 N/S type device in the maintenance and inspection book. This book should contain: EL-1 N/S type device us-age period (time), name and surname of the person (and its signature) who handles the de-vice, name and surname of the person in charge of the truck- tank, railway, ship or tanker, and aircraft tank, or other volume com-partments (with its signature), the kind of phase (liquid or gaseous) which is being fu-elled, with all characteristic data (kind of load, kind of transported hazardous material, micro-climatic conditions at the time of fuelling, etc.). The reason for that are possible undesired con-sequences, which may take place at the fuelling spot, caused by other permanent and potential dangers, not only by the static charge. The reg-istered data will show the history of accidents and ways of operation with an EL-1 N/S type device.
The same goes for the usage of an EL-1 N/S type device at the reloading (loading and unloading) of explosives and solid inflam-mable materials.
7.2 every seven days it is necessary to clean dust and other dirt from the device, the ca-ble and the "crocodile" clip (or clamp), with a clean cloth. During this operation the pillar itself should also be cleaned (for which an EL-1 N/S type device is fastened).The "crocodile" clip (or clamp) and its mecha-nism should be lubricated by machine oil. (If there is an automatic winder, the same should also be duly inspected.)
All activities and observed shortcomings, as well as the interventions done, are to be registered in the maintenance book of the device.
7.3 Maintenance and inspection of an EL-1 N/S type device is in charge of a technical super-visor at the fuelling spot or f the reloading spot (loading and unloading) of explosives and of solid inflammable materials, all in compliance with items 7.1.) and 7.2.).
7.4 The book on maintenance and inspection of an EL-1 N/S type device is to be allowed for an inspection by authorised persons (inspec-tors, police, court, and other authorised per-sons), and kept in accordance with other documentation of the fuelling spot.

8.0 Inspection and testing of an EL-1 N/S type device operation

Inspection and testing of an EL-1 N/S type device is practically done with every single use of it. It's a visual way of inspection and testing of an oper-ating efficiency of the EL-1 N/S type device. This device is manufactured so that it is necessary to perform a functional testing only, along with op-erational check-up, each 12 (twelve) months, by an authorised institution or by an authorised per-son, which may issue an adequate document about the validity of the same. Functional testing of the device is performed by a suitable equip-ment specially designed and manufactured, either on the spot or in the laboratory. Decision on the place/location for functional testing of the device, is brought by an authorised person - an inspector (whose authorisation was approved by the manu-facturer of an EL-1 N/S type device). After func-tional testing of an EL-1 N/S type device, the usage of the EL-1 N/S type device may be allowed for the next 12 months or less, or even a replace-ment of an EL-1 N/S type device may be ordered. That decision is to be brought by an inspector (authorised by the manufacturer of the device), after completion of a functional testing and opera-tional check-up of the device.
Having completed the inspection and testing of the EL-1 N/S type device, an authorised inspector issues a PROTOCOL ON INSPECTION AND TESTING OF AN EL-1 N/S TYPE DEVICE. All operations performed with the EL-1 N/S type device are to be registered (written down) in the book on maintenance and in-spection of this device, and this is going to be an obligation regarding operational and technological discipline.

9.0 How was the EL-1 N/S type device born

In 1985, the company Energoinvest, Sarajevo, set up the project for a scientific research, titled: "Studying of the static electricity phenomenon in the conditions of exploitation, processing, trans-port, handling, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products in the Petroleum Refinery, Bosanski Brod". Investigating the problem from both the scientific and an expert point of view, it has been noticed that the existing solution for the static charge elimination during pour and trans-port of petroleum and petroleum products, in-flammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explosives), and solid inflammable materials, was understated (in need of completion).
In 1987 a prototype of an EL-1 N/S type device was made, followed by a verification of the EL-1 N/S type device, at the fuelling spots of the termi-nal type, for petroleum, petroleum products, and liquid gas, at the Petroleum Refinery, Bosanski Brod. The plant verification was performed from Dec. 1987 till May, 1988, and was a full success.
In 1988
other kinds of testing of the device were made, both from a scientific and from the specialist point of view, as well as the construc-tion check-up, which all resulted in 1989 inform-ing the specialists' public about occurrence of an EL-1 N/S type device. In that same year the au-thor of the device was entrusted the task of the static charge elimination at the fuelling spots in Istria, Slovenia, and Dalmatia, and in 1990 in the city of Banjaluka.
Since 1990, the EL-1 N/S type device has started gaining confidence with the investors in the region of former Yugoslavia (SFRY), which resulted in its installations at the fuelling spots and in transpor-tation vehicles used for petroleum and petroleum products, inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explosives), and solid inflammable ma-terials.
At the exhibition 40th WORLD FAIR OF INVENTION, RESEARCH, AND INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION, Anspach Centre Brussels, BRUSSELS EUREKA 1991, the EL-1 N/S type de-vice has been awarded the GOLD MEDAL, and the GOLD RULER by INPEX, America's Largest Inven-tion / New Product Exposition, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

10.0 Short biography of the author of an EL-1 N/S type device

MICO GACANOVIC, MS (B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering) is the author of the STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION DEVICE USED AT POUR AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, INFLAMMABLE GASES AND LIQUIDS, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS (EXPLOSIVES) AND SOLID INFLAMMABLE MATERIALS, of EL-1 N/S type, commercially named EL-1 N/S type DEVICE.

He was born in 1952 in Donja Snjegotina, the municipality of ^elinac, Banjaluka, by the father Vitomir, and the mother Jovanka. He is married and has two children. His specialist field of work is that of an applied electrostatics - static charge. He is the author of the SYSTEM FOR THE STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION, type EL-1 and of other solutions in the field of applied electrostatics - static charge. He has published a vast number of scientific and specialist / expert works, and information out of the field of applied electrostatics, both inside and outside the country. He is the winner of large num-ber of awards and acknowledgements, he gained in the country and abroad, for his scientific and expert work, as follows:

OSCAR, for science and invention in the field of applied electrostatics - static charge, awarded by ICEPEC - INSTITUT COMMUNAUTAIRE EUROPEEN POUR LA PROMOTION DES ENTERPRISES COMMERCIALES, EN RECONNAISSANCE DE SES HAUTES QUALITET PROFESSIONNELLES ET DE SON INFLUENCE DANS L’ESPACE ECONOMIQUE EUROPEEN, Brussels, April 8, 1994.
SPECIAL AWARD, Minister Jean - Pierre GRAFE, BRUSSELS EUREKA ’94, 43rd WORLD EXHIBITION OF INVENTION, RESEARCH AND INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION, for the invention of static charge elimination device during pour, Brussels, November 14, 1994.
EUREKA Award for innovations in the field of static charge protection, ASSOCIATION OF JOURNALISTS OF SERBIA, SECTION OF JOURNALISTS FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Belgrade, May 19, 1994.
DAVID STRBAC STATUE for “Oscar results” in the scientific research achieved with dedication and persistency like Ko~i}’s, awarded by the Zmijanje Association, Banja Luka, June 28, 1994.
RECOGNITION for theoretical contribution by his work: "A NEW SOLUTION FOR THE STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATOR", 7th International Conference on Electrostatic Phenomena held at St. Catherine's College, ELECTROSTATICS 1987, Oxford, 1987.
GOLD MEDAL, at the 39th WORLD FAIR OF INVENTION, RESEARCH, AND INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION, Anspach Centre Brussels, BRUSSELS EUREKA 1990, for the solution: "EL-1 TYPE STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATOR", Brussels, 1990.
GOLD MEDAL at the 19th INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF INVENTIONS, NEW TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTS, GENEVA 1991, for the solution: "STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM, type EL-1", Geneva 1991.
• GOLD MEDAL, at INPEX VII, America's Largest Invention / New Product Exposition, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 1991, for the solution: "STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM, type EL-1", Pittsburgh, 1991.
GOLD MEDAL, at the 40th WORLD FAIR OF INVENTION, RESEARCH, AND INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION, Anspach Centre Brussels, BRUSSELS EUREKA 1991, for the solution: "STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION DEVICE DURING POUR AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, INFLAMMABLE GASES AND LIQUIDS, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS (EXPLOSIVES), AND SOLID INFLAMMABLE MATERIALS, TYPE EL-1 N/S", Brussels 1991.
GOLD RULER, at the 40th WORLD FAIR OF INVENTION, RESEARCH AND INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION, Anspach Centre Brussels, BRUSSELS EUREKA 1991, by INPEX, America's Largest In-vention / New Product Exposition, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, for the solution: "STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION DEVICE DURING POUR AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, INFLAMMABLE GASES AND LIQUIDS, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS (EXPLOSIVES), AND OF SOLID INFLAMMABLE MATERIALS, type EL-1 N/S", Brussels 1991.
GOLD MEDAL, at EXPO 1991, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 1991, for the solution: "STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM, type EL-1", Plovdiv, 1991.
YUGOSLAV TRADE UNION FEDERATION COUNCIL MEDALLION, Innovation Co-ordination Staff, Belgrade, 1988, for innovations in the field of applied electrostatics - static charge, Belgrade, 1988.
GOLD - DIAMOND MEDAL, awarded by the Development and research center Milentije Ran|elovi}, Belgrade, for the invention of STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATOR, Belgrade - Banja Luka, 1994.
SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT, Serb Academy of science, Belgrade, Association of inventors and authors of technical improvements, Belgrade, for exceptional achievements in developing and promoting innovations, applying innovations, and contributing to the development and promotion of the organization of Association of inventors, Belgrade, 1994.
GOLD MEDALS at: RAST YU 1981, INOVA 1984, BELGRADE FAIR 1987, etc., for the innovations in the field of applied electrostatics - static charge.
MONOGRAPH of the town of LIEGE, for contribution in researching and solving static charge elimination; awarded by the President of Brussels Eureka, Mr. Jose LORIAUX, Brussels, November 10, 1994.
• GOLD MEDAL at the exhibition MAGYAR FELTALAKOK EGYESULETE “GENIUS ‘96”, Budapest, 1996.
SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT for the innovation of “SYSTEM FOR STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION” at the exhibition “TESLA FEST ‘97”, Novi Sad, 1997.
• FIRST MONEY AWARD by the insurance company “Croatia” Zagreb at the exhibition RAST JU 1983 for the innovation of STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATOR, type EL-1, Rijeka, 1983.
DIPLOMAS for innovations in the field of applied electrostatics - static charge, by the Yugoslav Association of inventors and innovators, Belgrade, 1994; INOST Banja Luka, 1994; Association of inventors and authors of technical improvements, Belgrade, 1992; Association of inventors of Ser-bia, 1992; Association of inventors INCEL Banja Luka, 1984 and 1987; etc.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS by Chambers of Commerce: of Istria (1986), Slovenia (1988), Sarajevo (1984 and 1990) for succesful and efficient innovations in the field of static charge elimination in industrial workshops of the industry of mentioned regions.

In 1976, he has graduated from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Sarajevo, majoring in the applied electrostatics - static charge, defending his Master's Thesis in 1983, at the Faculty of Electrical Engi-neering, Zagreb, also from the field of applied electrostatics - static target. At present, he is working on his doctoral dissertation, also in the field of applied electrostatics - static charge.
He is associate at several Faculties of Electrical Engineering and Institutes in the region of former Yugo-slavia (SFRY), as the specialist for the field of applied electrostatics - static charge, He also co-operates with a few associations, institutions, and companies in the world, which deal with the problem of ap-plied electrostatics - static charge, and electrical engineering sciences in general.
He has been employed with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Banjaluka, at the Banjaluka University.

11.0 How to order EL-1 N/S type device and guarantee terms

To order the device for static charge elimination during pour and transport of petroleum and petroleum products, inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explosives), and solid inflammable materials, type EL-1 N/S, it is necessary to fill in the enclosed form of an order, and mail it at the address of an authorised representative of the author for this device, or at the author's address.

The guarantee terms for the EL-1 N/S type device are stated in the Guarantee form.


Guarantee form for the EL-1 N/S type device will be delivered together with the enclosed documentation at the delivery date of the device to the customer.

Guarantee period for the EL-1 N/S type device is 12 (twelve) months from the date of delivery to the customer, which is in compliance with the Law on standardisation, "Official paper of SFRY" no. 37/88, article 64.


Spare parts, maintenance and repair service for the EL-1 N/S type device are provided by the manufacturer.

M.Gacanovic; DEVICE type EL - 1 N/S, ©Copyright 1997 by MG


Eureka

   Dr. Mićo Gaćanović M.Sc.Eng.
ul. Sime Miljusa 92
78000 Banja Luka
Bosnia-Herzegovina

Tel: +387(0)51-306 767
E-Mail: bilchy@blic.net

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