Mićo Gaćanović M.Sc.Eng.
78000 Banja Luka, Sime Miljusa 92
Tel: +387(0)51-306 767
Brussels Eureka 2003
Seminar, Banjaluka 2006
Static Charge Elimination Device
for pour and traansport of petroleum and petroleum products,
in-flammable gases and liquids, explosives and solid inflammable mate-rials
Many years of thorough research, patience and uncertainty were needed
before EL-1 N/S Type Device was born. The device now exists to the
benefit and welfare of all of us. To create it, it took my devotion, as
well as that of my associates - diligent and honest people, who believed
in my work. All of them are the friends of mine, for which I feel an
endless respect and love, and to whom I'd like to thank on this
occasion, I - myself being only the first one to undersign the EL-1 N/S
My family had power, will, faith, love and respect to understand me, for
which I will always owe them eternal thanks.
You, however, who are to use this device and recommend it to others,
will make it "live" and will give it a chance to "show that it can
fulfil its task" - to eliminate static charge during analysed
technological operations; therefore, I'd like to thank you for our
future co-operation. To my potential customers I do wish success in
business, for that success I'll consider mine, as well.
With respect, Your friend and co-operator, the author and manufacturer
of EL-1 N/S type device
Mico Gacanovic, MS in Electrical Engineering
ZORAN RASEVIC, B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering
GOSTIMIR GACANOVIC, B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering
MIROSLAV MIKIC, B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering
SLOBODAN POPOVIC, B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering
processing & booklet cover design:
GOSTIMIR GACANOVIC, B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering
Author of an
DRAGICA BANJAC, B.A. & Permanent Court Interpreter for the English
STANOJE PLAVSIC, prof
|1.0 PROBLEM SOLVED BY
EL-1 N/S type DEVICE.................................................
hazardous materials, and general survey of organisation and
regula-tions regarding transport of hazardous material
|1.2 General survey
of regulations, standards, literature and institutions which deal
with latent hazards caused by static charge during transport of
a) Regulations and standards.......................................................................
b) Literature which deals with these problems
b-1 Pour and transport of petroleum and petroleum products
b-2 Pour and transport of inflammable gases and liquids, explosive
materials (ex-plosives), as well as of solid inflammable
c) Significant institutions which deal with these problems
c-1 International electrical commission (IEC)
c-2 European federation for chemical engineering (EFCE)
|2.0 STATE OF
TECHNIQUE AND SHORTCOMINGS OF PRESENT SOLUTIONS
a) by direct grounding
| b) by
"Ex" type switch grounding...................................................................
c) by grounding conductor
d) by antistatic strip grounding
|3.0 SHORT DESCRIPTION
OF EL-1 N/S type DEVICE............................................
CHARACTERISTICS OF EL-1 N/S type DEVICE
|5.0 INSTRUCTIONS FOR
INSTRUCTIONS OF EL-1 N/S type DEVICE
6.1 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at refuelling..................................................
6.1.1 Car-refuelling spots............................................................................
6.1.2 Railway, ship or tanker and aircraft refuelling
6.2 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at reloading locations
(loading and unload-ing)
of explosives and of solid inflammable materials......................................
6.3 Use of EL-1 N/S type device on truck-tanks, and on
other dragged and
attached vehicles during motion
6.4 Use of EL-1 N/S type device on truck-tanks (dragged
vehi-cles), on railway, ship or tankers, and aircraft-tanks
spots of terminal type
MAINTENANCE, HANDLING, STORAGE AND INSPECTION OF EL-1 N/S type
AND TESTING OF EL-1 N/S type DEVICE
|9.0 HOW WAS
EL-1 N/S type DEVICE BORN
BIOGRAPHY OF THE AUTHOR OF EL-1 N/S type DEVICE.....................
|11.0 HOW TO
ORDER EL-1 N/S type DEVICE
|- Hazardous materials for
which we recommend use of EL -1 N/S type device.
The purpose of this short text is to give
information about the DEVICE FOR STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION DURING
POUR AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, INFLAMMABLE
GASES AND LIQUIDS, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS (EXPLOSIVES), AS WELL AS OF
SOLID INFLAMMABLE MATERIALS of EL-1 N/S type.
Commercial name for this device is: EL-1 N/S type DEVICE.
This text also gives a brief description of former solutions which
are used (or were used) to eliminate static charge, containing also
short comments on shortcomings of given solu-tions.
EL-1 N/S type device has been designed and manufactured in order to
satisfy valid regu-lations and standards, from the point of view of
both design and purpose on the one side, and application during its
use and exploitation on the other. It does not mean finitiveness
when solving the problem of the static charge elimination during the
before mentioned technological operations, but a contribution to the
time we live in. We wish that the other authors find stimulus and
creative basis in the EL-1 N/S type device, in order to produce even
more successful solution for the static charge elimination during
the above men-tioned technological operations.
Consequently, we use the EL-1 N/S type device in the hazardous
areas, i.e. in those areas where there is a permanent or potential
danger of developing of dangerous concentra-tions of inflammable
liquids and gases vapours, as well as inflammable pulverous solid
materials. It serves for static charge elimination, which appears
when handling dangerous inflammable materials, which prevents
development of cumulative discharge (sparkling) in hazardous areas.
If we were not to eliminate static charge in hazardous areas, the
phenomenon of cumulative discharge (sparkling) in hazardous areas
would cause both fires and explosions, which would endanger human
lives and material goods.
In technological and material sense of the word, the EL-1 N/S type
device is neither more complex, nor more expensive than former
solutions (of the same purpose), but is far more reliable and safer.
1.0 Problem solved by EL-1 N/S type device
development causes abrupt expan-sion and demand of: petroleum and
petroleum products, inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials
(explosives), and solid inflammable ma-terials.
The consequences are latent (potential and per-manent) hazards which
exist during pour and transport of the mentioned phases (liquid,
gase-ous, pulverous, and solid phase), and are ex-pressed through fires
Regulations which define the technologic procedure of pour and transport
of the mentioned phases are unique for the whole world. Their amendments
and implementation are in charge of the UNITED NATIONS (UN). The
countries - members of the UN are obliged to carry out these
In spite of that we are witnesses of large scale accidents all over the
world, which are caused by pour and transport of the mentioned phases,
for the regulations given do not represent finiteness, but only a sort
of thinking resulting from the times we are living in, and from the
level of understand-ing and experience in this field.
Hence, among latent (both potential and perma-nent) hazards which occur
during pour and trans-port of the mentioned phases, there are also
haz-ards caused by static charge, being expressed by fires and
Problems of static charge with considered technologi-cal operations have
been analysed so far, but not sufficiently, so that they still represent
a great un-known for wider circle of experts. We must, however, admit,
that the problem of static charge elimination, was not treated seriously
enough, because it was believed that the problem of static charge
elimination, with analysed technological operations, had long ago been
Equally, those regulations which refer
to static charge elimination problems, deploy their recom-mendations on
the EARTHING solution of all those geometries where static charge is
generated, be-ing the solution (measure like) for the static charge
elimination, as well as the precaution for protection from static charge
generation. The consequence of such way of thinking is an inevita-ble
phenomenon of CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE (sparking) which, on the other hand,
causes latent (potential and permanent) hazards, which arise from static
charge, and they are FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS.
Static charge elimination and static charge genera-tion protection
measure are two separate prob-lems, which should be observed as such.
Eearthing is one of the protection measures for static charge
generation, but not at the same time the measure for static charge
elimination (we are talking about a special case of static charge elimi-nation
by means of earthing).
The device for static charge elimination during pour of petroleum and
petroleum products, in-flammable gases and liquids, explosive materials
(explosives), as well as of solid inflammable ma-terials, of EL1 N/S
type, has given its contribu-tion to an approach towards static charge
elimina-tion during technological operations, respecting former
solutions and their authors.
EL-1 N/S type device represents an
original solu-tion, both from the technical as well as from the
scientific point of view. It is far more confident and more reliable
solution from the standpoint of the static charge elimination, than the
former ones. It replaces former solutions with mentioned technological
operations, as follows:
a) solution for direct earthing
of observed geometry,
b) solution for switch earthing in "Ex" (sin-gle-pole ridge switch)
performance (Exd) II AT3 of observed geometry,
c) solution for earthing by means of earthing detector (DETEKTEUR DE
MISE A LA TERRE type DU - 1E.ADF) of ob-served geometry,
d) antistatic strip on truck-tanks (dragged and attached vehicles).
1.1 About hazardous materials and general survey of or-ganisation and
regulations on hazardous materials transport
Phenomenon of hazardous materials
covers all those materials, which, during manufacture, han-dling,
storage or usage, emit or create infectious, irritating, inflammable,
explosive, corrosive, chok-ing, toxic, or other dangerous dusts, smokes,
va-pours, or fibres, as well as harmful radiation in such quantities
which may lead to health damage of those persons which get into contact
with them, or may cause material damage of the prop-erty.
Number of hazardous materials in use in the world is extremely large,
increasing from year to year. We are familiar with almost 7,000,000
(seven million) of various hazardous materials, 40,000 (forty thousands)
of which are being used in lar-ger quantities, while with 816 (eight
hundred and sixteen) various hazardous materials, during pour and
transport as well as their handling, the static charge represents both
potential and permanent danger, manifesting itself through fires and
explo-sions (number of 816 dangerous materials is the number known to
the author of the EL-1 N/S type device at the moment of writing of this
text, the number increasing daily). The book titled "Haz-ardous
materials for which we recommend use of EL-1 N/S type device; tabular
survey;" Part 2:, gives tabular list of 816 various hazardous materi-als
for which we recommend use of static charge elimination device, type:
EL-1 N/S, during pour and transport.
Hence, we are talking here about 816 various hazardous materials which
are easy to ignite, and are extremely inflammable (F marked), and
explo-sive (E marked). During their pour, transport and handling, they
are very likely to build up concen-trations of explosive mixtures of
gases and va-pours (whose areas are defined by zones of haz-ard: "0
ZONE", "1 ZONE", or "2 ZONE", all in ac-cordance with JUS N.S8.007
standards), concen-tration of explosive atmosphere of piled dust ( whose
areas are defined as "11 ZONE" zone of hazard (according to JUS N.S8.008
standard) or "21 ZONE" (an international proposal)), and con-centration
of settled dust (whose areas are de-fined by "12 ZONE" zone of hazard
(according to JUS N.S8.008) or "22 ZONE" (an international proposal)).
Mentioned concentrations may ignite at small ignition energy Wp (or
spark energy Wiskre). It is known that Wp= Wiskre - 0,4 Wmin [mJ], where
Wmin - is minimal ignition energy of explo-sive and inflammable mixture
(of gases, vapours, and dust) [mJ].A spark can be caused by static
charge, which is inevitable consequence of the production proce-dure,
which in this case, means pour and trans-port of hazardous materials
resulting in double layer contact (EL-1 N/S type device will in fact
eliminate static charge in such cases preventing occurrence of such
Hazardous materials are used in all industrial branches, as the raw
material necessary for the production of: artificial materials and
fibres, fuels, rubbers, insulation materials, medicines, insecti-cide,
paints, varnishes, detergents, explosives, artificial fertilisers, plant
protection means, etc.; thus, it is impossible to renounce their
application. However, it is possible to use them in a more rational and
safer way, with better organisation, without side effects characterising
present level of development and organisation.
Protection measures for safe use of hazardous materials are determined
depending on: location, space, and facility where handling of hazardous
materials take place, type of facility construction, technological
procedure, type of electrical, gas and other installations, storage
ways, location for loading and unloading, as well as pour, transport
ways and means, chemical and physical properties of dangerous materials,
as well as of needed type and quantity of fire extinguishers.Hence,
hazardous materials' matters had been regulated by international law
regulations and agreements which regulate their production, us-age,
transport, pour, and storage.
The issue of static charge elimination with haz-ardous materials has
great importance, and be-comes OBLIGATORY in the mentioned regulations
In our consideration and description of the EL-1 N/S type device for
static charge elimination, we shall analyse those materials which are
used dur-ing pour and transport of petroleum and petro-leum products,
inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explosives), as well
as solid inflammable materials - all of these being stated and named in
the tables; see also "Hazardous materials with which we recommend use
of EL-1 N/S type device; tables", Part 2:, by the same author.
Within the council of the UNITED NATIONS (UN), New York, U.S.A., the
board of specialists for hazardous materials transport (ST/SG/AC.10) has
been established, as the permanent body ECOSOC, or better known under
the name of: Economic and Social Council, which gives recom-mendations
regarding hazardous materials' trans-port ("orange book" - that is why
orange has been used as basic warning colour when handling haz-ardous
The body named ECOSOC has established organi-sations - branches, which
deal with mentioned issues, as follows:
air traffic: ICAO
(International Civil Aviation Organisation (has been established,
taking care of technical instructions for hazardous materials air
naval traffic: IMO
(International Maritime Organisation (has been established, taking
care of the Law on maritime transport of haz-ardous materials (IMDG);
road traffic: ECE/Europe
(Economic Com-mission for Europe) has been established by UN, which
takes care of European agreement on international transport of
hazardous mate-rials (ADR);
rail traffic: OCTI (Central
Office for Interna-tional Railway Transport) has been established,
considering International regulations on railway transport of
hazardous materials (RID);
river traffic: two
organisations were estab-lished: ECE/ONU, which take care of
declara-tions regarding transport of dangerous goods along European
rivers (AND, while RHINE or-ganisation cares about declarations
regarding dangerous goods' transport along the Rhine river (ADNR)).
1.2 Survey of regulations,
stan-dards, literature, and insti-tutions which consider la-tent hazards
caused by the static charge during hazard-ous materials transport
a) Regulations and standards
The most significant regulations and standards which deal with these
issues are: BS (British Standard) 6651; 5501; 5345; 5958; 2050; 5501,
then NFPA (National Fire Protection Agency (USA)) 77; NFPA 78; NFPA
88, GOST standards (U.S.S.R.) and ADR (1985, ISBN 92-1-139017), RID/RSD,
SDR, IMDG - CODE, ICAO - TI, AND, ADNR, GGVS, JUS N.S8 and JUS Z.CO
b) Literature dealing with these issues:
b-1 Pour and transport of petroleum and pe-troleum products
b-1.1 THE AVOIDANCE OF ELECTROSTATIC HAZARDS
IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY, Journal of electrostatics, volume 27
(1992), by H.L.Walmsley.
b-1.2 W. M. Bustin & W. G. Dukek: ELEKTROSTATIC IN THE
PETROLEUM INDUSTRY, Southampton, 1983.
b-1.3 Joseph M. Crowley : FUNDAMENTALS OF APPLIED ELECTROSTATICS, New
b-1.4 J.S.Mills & R.C.Oldham: EVALUATION AND PREVENTION OF
ELECTROSTATIC HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL TANKER OPERATIONS, New York,
b-1.5 M. Gacanovic: EVALUATION OF HAZARDS AND ENDANGER FROM THE
STATIC CHARGE IN AREAS WITH EXPLOSION HAZARDS, magazine: "Applied
science", Belgrade, 1989.
b-1.6 M. Gacanovic : EL1 N/S type DEVICE FOR STATIC CHARGE
ELIMINATION, 40th WORLD FAIR OF INVENTION, RESEARCH, AND INDUSTRIAL
INNOVATION, Anspach Centre Brussels, BRUSSELS EUREKA 1991, Brussels,
b-1.7 Project titled : STUDYING OF STATIC CHARGE PHENOMENON IN
THE CONDITIONS OF EXPLOITATION, PROCESSING, TRANSPORT, HANDLING, AND
STORAGE OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE
PETROLEUM REFINERY Bosanski Brod, Energoinvest Sarajevo and the
Fac-ulty of Electrical Engineering Sarajevo, the Republic scientific
institution, and the city of Sarajevo (Energoinvest)) scientific
insti-tution, the scientific and research project, Sarajevo, 1987.
b-1.8 Project titled : "VRELO" ("WELL") - the scientific and research
project, SSNO-SFRY Belgrade and the Faculty of Electrical En-gineering,
Sarajevo, Sarajevo-Belgrade, 1981.
b-2 Pour and transport of
inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explo-sives), and
of solid inflammable materials:
b-2.1 Instructions and the catalogue of the com-pany: FLUKE Chemie
AG, Switzerland, 1990.
b-2.2 Instructions and the catalogue of the com-pany: HERAEUS
Feinchemikalien und For-schungbedarf GmbH, Deutschland, 1990.
b-2.3 International conventions on pour and transport, as well
as of storage of hazard-ous materials, archive of "Official paper of
c) Significant institutions
dealing with these issues:
c-1 International Electrical Commission (IEC) has formed, for the
first time (since its ex-istence) the subcommittee 15D within the
Committee 15 (IEC 15D, with a head office in Geneva), in the period of
Nov./Dec., 1991. This subcommittee was to co-ordinate (for the first
time) the activities from the domain of electrostatic applica-tion and
was to treat the above mentioned issues, afterwards giving
instructions for making of standards and regulations to the IEC member
c-2 European Federation of Chemical Engi-neering (EFCE)
Static charge issues in European countries are being solved by the
section of EUROPEAN FEDERATION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING.
2.0 The state of technic and
shortcom-ings of present solutions
As it was said in item 1.0 (The problem solved by
the device), static charge elimination with consid-ered technological
operations (during pour and transport of petroleum and petroleum
products, inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials
(explosives), as well as of solid inflammable ma-terials), is done by:
a) direct earthing of observed
geometry (of a volume container or a tank);
C o m m e n t: it is the first
solution ordered by the Legislator (or set up as an obligation) by means
of Technical and Legal regulations, through instructions about static
charge protection. (In some countries regulations which consider certain
technologies, do consider static charge protection, as well.)
Under the notion of static charge protection, the Leg-islator, in his
regulations, considers both the protec-tion measures and the elimination
Shortcoming of this solution is the possibility of CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE
occurrence (sparking), both on the outer and on the inner part of the
tank (or volume container).
If power balance between the electrostatic energy power heap:
"associated earthing conductor" and the volume container, is done by
means of "short bond - circuit"(or by direct earthing) by means of a
cable (PF/J cable), cumulative discharge (spark-ing) will occur.
Dangerous consequences of such a solution are possibilities to cause
fires and explosions, being the consequence of a latent (potential and
perma-nent) hazard caused by the static charge. Realising that such a
solution does not represent finiteness in the approach to solve the
problem, the Legislator gives an order to apply the solution pre-sented
under b) of the item 2.0, which is a solution by means of a single pole
ridge switch, of "Ex" type.
b) earthing of observed geometry
(of a vol-ume container or a tank) by means of an "Ex" type switch,
unpenetrating armor (Exd) II AT3 (the product named a sin-gle-pole
ridge switch, of "Ex" type, of unpenetrating armor (Exd) II AT 3 - ex-plosion
proof type of protection).
C o m m e n t: This solution is, in fact, an im-proved solution in
comparison with a direct earthing solution. Improvement consists in
avoid-ance of outside cumulative discharge on the outer part the volume
container (while the problem of an inside cumulative discharge still
remains), un-der the condition that the employees obey techni-cal
handling procedure with a single-pole ridge switch of "Ex" type.
Hence, static charge elimination by means of a single-pole ridge switch
of "Ex" type, is a com-promising solution, both from the technical and
from the manipulative standpoint.
While the single-pole ridge switch of "Ex" type is in the position of an
electrical connection with the outer part of the volume container (tank)
with the earthing conductor, there is the possibility for an inside
cumulative discharge (sparking), inside of the volume container (tank).
(Inside the tank there are concentrations of explo-sive mixtures, which
may be ignited by a low en-ergy spark.) Electrical connection between
the switch of "Ex" type and the earthing conductor is being realised
both physically and electrically, and is permanently present during the
pour. Possibility of occurrence of latent (potential and permanent)
hazards, caused by the static charge and mani-fested through FIRES and
EXPLOSIONS is great.
Connection and disconnection of the switch of "Ex" type and the volume
container (tank), be-longs to the procedure of technical handling, which
is done by the employees. An error in the handling creates the
possibility of occurrence of latent (potential and permanent) hazards,
caused by the static charge. Hence, sparking may occur, followed by
ignition of explosive mixtures concen-tration. Shortcoming of this
solution by means of the switch of "Ex" type is that this solution is
con-ditioned by a human factor, too.
Time of discharge relaxation - energetic equalisa-tion between power
heaps of electrostatic energy is very short, resulting in occurrence of
cumulative discharge inside the volume container (tank).
With due respect to the solution given, as well as to its author, and
also to the results this solution has brought about in a scientific,
technical, and practical part, we may say that it does not repre-sent a
final technical solution, but only and only a technical move in regard
to the direct earthing solution, under the condition that the rules of
technical handling procedure by means of this switch were obeyed, and
which also depends on the human factor (employees).
In need of other solution, this solution is still be-ing applied, but
the Legislator is aware of the shortages this solution has. In fact, the
Legislator "awaits new solution", and we are offering and giving a
proposal for such a new solution - the EL-1 N/S type device.
The given solution is not being recommended anymore, neither is it
c) earthing of an observed
geometry (volume container or a tank) by an earthing detec-tor (DETEKTEUR
DE MISE A LA TERRE type DU - 1E.ADF), an unpenetrating armor for
explosion proof protection (Exd), while an earthing detector measuring
circle has been certified for SELFSECURITY - a kind of explosion proof
protection (Exi) (according to JUS N.S8.301, i.e. IEC 79-11 (Part 11:
Construction and test of intrinsically - safe and associated
C o m m e n t: an earthing
detector is actually designed "more" to satisfy operating comfort at the
refuelling location (of a terminal type). Oper-ating comfort consists in
performing (in an electri-cal sense) a blockade and an unblockade of the
refuelling pump. This blockade and unblockade of the pump are done
according to "parallel earthing" logic.
The static charge elimination measure is per-formed by means of direct
earthing of a volume container (tank), starting from the temporal mo-ment
of the tank connection, t=.5 sec, up to the end of refuelling. From the
temporal moment t=0 up to t=.5 sec, tank earthing is being done through
the resistance (from 1.5 kOhm + alternat-ing P2 resistance (5 kOhm),
when, actually, the static charge elimination effect is "best being
Existing dangers, shown by means of latent (potential and permanent)
dangers, caused by the static charge, are CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE (both
outside and inside of a volume container - tank), which are FIRES AND
EXPLOSIONS. Ignition and explosion of explosive mixture concentration is
caused by sparking coming from static charge.
Operation with an earthing detector is practically impossible if the
refuelling is done under frosty (or heavy rain) conditions. Since an aim
was to provide operating comfort at the pour location, in order to
automatically lock and unlock the pump, the problem of frost was being
solved by means of (as the designer had decided) the MAGNET FOR FROST
The magnet for frost has a role to "lie" to the read relay in the
electronic block of the detector, and to AT ONCE connect the tank, over
an earthing detector, to the earthing conductor (meaning to perform
It is performed so that the employee places the frost magnets on the
previously determined place on the detector (marked by red marks),
unlocking actually the refuelling pump in this way.
Performing this, NO ONE ACTUALLY CARES about static charge elimination.
The truth judgement was created that EARTHING (?) has become the measure
for the static charge elimination, and that the earthing detector will
eliminate the static charge (?), which is not true.
We may frankly say that the EARTHING DETECTOR represents worse solution
for the static charge elimination than the solution with the same
purpose named a SINGLE-POLE RIDGE SWITCH of "Ex" type. It is known, and
thus, in the earthing detector technical documentation, there is an
important note that the earthing detector should be connected to the
tank when it (the tank) is "electrostatically discharged".
(documentation: Measuring systems - Energoinvest, Sarajevo,
documentation number 2513400498 ap-proved in Sarajevo, on 05/09/1986 and
the attached document TSK 8250 entitled "INDIVIDUAL TESTING number
0889", dated 12/22/1985, issued by Ener-goinvest, Measuring systems,
Sarajevo, on the baof the document issued by "S" Commission (the
Commission for explosion proof protection, of the Federal Institute for
Standardisation, Belgrade, YU), no. 15599 dated 12/22/1985 in accordance
Knowing that the solution for static charge elimi-nation by means of an
EARTHING DETECTOR, has got the same shortcomings as the direct earthing
solution, and knowing that following this solution one achieves only and
only an operating comfort at the refuelling locations, from the point of
view of the pump blockade and unblockade - we are herewith proposing and
offering a new solution named EL-1 N/S type device.
Blockade and unblockade of the pump, in an elec-trical sense of the
word, may be solved, at the pour locations, by another technical logic.
So far the earthing detectors were installed at the pour locations under
the name terminals.
The earthing detector is the most often seen at the TERMINALS for
petroleum products, TERMINALS for the liquid gas, TERMINALS for
inflammable liquids, and on other similar places. It operates if
connected to a 220 (V) mains, while an EL-1 N/S type device does not
need mains' connection.
d) earthing of a truck-tank (of
dragged and attached vehicles) which is immovable or movable - by
means of an ANTISTATIC STRIP.
C o m m e n t: however, during
the motion of a truck-tank (dragged or attached vehicle), static charge
is generated, which means that a static charge elimination measure
should be performed.
This operation is done by means of a "rubber" strip - "I" formed (when
the strip is released), commercially named an ANTISTATIC STRIP. By
adding certain components to the rubber, in order to achieve desired
resistance (electrical resis-tance), lower than 100,000 Ohms, this
rubber (for antistatic strip), gets completely different me-chanical and
temperature features, in comparison to a standard kind of rubber. The
result we get after fastening an antistatic strip to the truck-tanks (of
dragged or attached vehicles), is that the strip itself bends in the "J"
letter form, under the conditions of microclimatic influences.
While in the "I" letter form, the strip has got a task to provide an
electrical connection between the truck-tank (and also dragged and
attached vehicle) and the road.
By bending in a "J" letter shape, the antistatic strip does not perform
its task, and practically has no use whatsoever. (Bending of strip in a
"J" letter shape is an inevitable consequence of its ageing.)
When the antistatic strip is in the "correct state", i.e. it
takes an "I" letter form, static charge elimina-tion "should
be performed" by earthing of a truck-tank (also of dragged and
attached vehicles) by means of an antistatic strip. It means that an
electric connection between the truck-tank (and a dragged and attached
vehicle) and the road, should be ef-fected. Electrical resistance which
exists in such an electrical circuit, is in fact the antistatic strip
resis-tance, and the resistance of the contact between the strip and the
road. The sum of these electrical resis-tances presents, in an
electrostatic sense of the word, a neglectable value of an electrical
resistance, which is in fact (from the static charge elimination
aspect), a short circuit. Dangers which may occur by use of such a
solution for static charge elimination, are as follows:
• when an antistatic strip is in a released posi-tion, i.e. in
the letter "I" form, it has an elec-trical connection with the road.
Danger that may occur is CUMULATIVE DISCHARGE, both of an outside and an
inside volume container - truck-tank or dragged and attached vehicle
which is being considered.
Hence, static charge elimination is being done according to the truth
judgement logic by EARTHING (?). Earthing is not the elimination
measure, but a special case of a measure for static charge elimination,
with the presence of a cumulative discharge (sparking) danger.
• when an antistatic strip is in a bent position (which is a
frequent and an inevitable case), i.e. in the "J" letter form, than such
a strip HAS NO USE WHATSOEVER.
We have stated the antistatic strip shortcomings. The Legislator has
become aware of these short-comings. Having no better solutions, and
waiting for new solutions, the ANTISTATIC STRIP solution is still being
used. We are offering and proposing here to solve these problems by
means of an EL-1 N/S type device.
Hence, static charge elimination solution for the moving truck-tanks, as
well as for dragged and attached vehicles, can be achieved by
application of an EL-1 N/S type DEVICE, where we have, instead of an
antistatic strip, the use of a copper made braid (it's also possible to
have a steel made braid), which is connected to an outer part of a truck
-tank, or of a dragged and attached vehicle, through an EL-1 N/S type
I m p o r t a n t n o t e :
The Legislator demands that all truck-tanks (dragged and attached
vehicles) which transport petroleum and petroleum products, inflammable
gases and liquids, have a static charge elimination device. It has been
defined through Regulations (under item 1.2)a)) as an obligation - for
unless they have a static charge elimination device, they will not be
allowed to take part in public traffic, neither can they enter the
refuel terminal. This device is used to connect the truck-tank (dragged
or attached vehicle), to the earthing (separately), at the refuel
terminals, since it has long been known that the earthing detector
cannot solve the static charge elimination problem (but only serves to
provide operational comfort - see item c.)).
For the time being, a single-pole ridge switch of an "Ex" type is being
used at the truck-tanks (dragged and attached vehicles), (for explosion
proof protection (Exd)II AT3 - see item b.)).
We are proposing, recommending and offering, herewith, a replacement by
a new technical and safer solution - an EL-1 N/S type device.
However, during pour of the considered phases in aircraft, railway, and
naval traffic, the EL-1 N/S type device may be used for the safe and
reliable static charge elimination, in the way already de-scribed. (When
solving problems of the static charge elimination, in the air, railway,
and naval traffic, please consult the author of this device or a
specialist in the field of an applied electrostatics - static
electricity, due to specific technological operations.
3.0 Brief description of an EL-1 N/S type device
N/S type device is applied for static charge elimination at pour and
transport of petroleum and petroleum products, inflammable gases and
liquids, explosives, and solid inflammable materials. Static charge
occurrence is an inevitable procedure, as the consequence of a double
layer (friction) contact of the mentioned media with the piping walls,
filters, pumps, containers, and similar. As already stated, latent
(potential and permanent) dangers caused by static charge with
considered technological opera-tions, are fires and explosions.
According to the law regulations (NFPA, RID/RSD, ADR/SDR, IMDG-CODE,
ICAO - TI, ADNR and oth-ers), the use of such devices is necessary with
truck-tanks, railway tanks, maritime and aircraft means of
transportation, at the refuel terminals of the above mentioned phases
(solid, liquid, pulver-ous, and gaseous), and in technological processes
(in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry, the mining industry, the
industry of paints and var-nishes, and similar).
It replaces the existing solutions in this field of application, as are
the single-pole ridge switch of "Ex" type (of (Exd) protection II AT3),
the earthing detector (DETEKTEUR DE MISE A LA TERRE type DU - 1E.ADF,
the unpenetrating armor (Exd) for explosion proof protection, while the
measuring circle for detector earthing was certi-fied for a kind of
explosion proof protection SELFSECURITY (Exi) and antistatic strip.
The device was manufactured in the explosion proof protection Exi (Exib)
system. The device was manu-factured to comply with the unpenetrating
armor (Exd) protection system conditions, while the measur-ing circle
for grounding is being certified for the self-security Exib kind of
explosion proof protection (and if needed, it may also be manufactured
for the Exia self-security protection).
In an anti-corrosion protection system, while op-erating with cathode,
as well as an anode protec-tion, both active and passive, the EL-1 N/S
type device is compatible with other accessible devices of such a
4.0 Technical Characteristics of EL-1N/S Type
• manufacturer - author: MICO
GACANOVIC, MS of EE, Banjaluka
• device protection system:
• SELFSECURITY Exi (Exib, or, if ordered, also Exia) in accordance
with IEC 79-11, confirmation number: 001-042/91 dated 08/30/1991
issued by the Protection Institute, Banjaluka;
• UNPENETRATING ARMOR (Exd) for II AT1 and II AT3, applications
with Federal Institute for Standardisa-tion, Belgrade, YU, number:
Up-3/1-04-0156/2 dated 06/17/1993.
• measuring circle for earthing, manufactured in compliance
with explosion proof protection, JUS N.S8.3301 SELFSECURITY Exi (Exib,
and if ordered also for Exia).
• EL-1 N/S type device was designed for static charge
elimination, at pouring from or into volume com-partments (one
compartment being the whole), up to the volume size V= 200,000 (l),
located above the ground.
• type of the device: without an outside supply,
performed in the form of a PASSIVE DEVICE.
• operating temperature: -30 to +60 C degrees.
• implementation place: "ZONE 2" HAZARDOUS ZONE (in
accordance with JUS N.S8.007) and "ZONE 22" (in accordance with JUS
N.S8.008), located above the ground (marked II).
• operating cable length: PF/J 1 x 10 (mm2); 10 (m).
• total weight of the device with accessing components: cca 9.0
• size of the device kit: 400 x 380 x 220 (mm).
• hanging of the device kit (with its support and
protection roof, necessary cables of PF/J x 10 (mm2) type, (10 + 1)(m)
length and crocodile clips)) is done on a galvanised pipe - pillar
ø2.5" (2.5 (inches)), H = 1.0 (m) height painted in turns (starting
from the ground): orange - white ((2 + 2) x 0.25 (cm)).
• connec tion of a device to the FeZn strip of the earthing
device: done on the pipe - pillar for hanging of the EL-1 N/S type
5.0 Instructions for designers
EL-1 N/S type device has been
designed and rec-ommended for such technological operations as are pour
and transport of petroleum and petro-leum products, inflammable gases
and liquids, explosive materials (explosives(, and solid in-flammable
materials, where it is necessary to eliminate static charge.
The performance of EL-1 N/S type device is such that it can be used
as the protection measure and elimination measure for static charge.
EL-1 N/S type device may reliably eliminate static charge up to the
volume size of 200,000 (litres). It means that pouring from or into
volume com-partments of up to 200,000 (litres) of volume size, if
installed above the ground, can be done. For sizes of volume (V)
compartments larger than 200,000 (l), it is necessary to contact the
special-ist in the field of applied electronics. With larger volume
sizes it is necessary to use more EL-1 N/S type devices, which in fact
is the case with naval, (tankers), railway, or aircraft refuelling
In case of several volume compartments used, as with railway or ship
tanks (both sea and river ship tanks), each of the tanks during
refuelling procedure should be at-tached to its EL-1 N/S type device.
(The question of static charge elimination with large stable tanks (with
or without a floating roof) is not possible to be solved by use of an
EL-1 N/S type device. Such prob-lem is to be solved by another EL-1
"family" type device.)
refuelling places of the "petrol pump" type, we recommend use of at
least two EL-1 N/S type devices. One of them is to eliminate static
charge from the truck-tank, and the other one from the dragged or
attached vehicles during pouring from or into one of the mentioned
compartments. It has been set up as a legal obligation.
Each motor vehicle fuel supplying station ("petrol pump") is
characterised, among others, by the V volume size, of the fuel storage.
The number of needed EL-1 N/S type devices, directly depends on the V
volume. Larger volumes have more refu-elling places, which increases
also the need for larger number of EL-1 N/S type devices.
At refuelling terminals, each refuelling place for pouring from or into
the volume compartment, has to have on EL-1 N/S type device installed.
At reloading places (loading and unloading) of explosives and solid
inflammable materials, each loading place has to have one EL-1 N/S type
EL-1 N/S type device is installed above the ground (marked II) in hazard
zone "ZONE 2" in accordance with JUS N.S8.007 (Classification of
hazardous zones for inflammable gases and vapours), and in "ZONE 22" (an
old mark is "ZONE 11" or "ZONE 12" or "ZONE 22"), in accordance with JUS
N.S8.008 (Classi-fication of hazardous areas in case of inflammable
Installation place for EL-1 N/S type device is be-ing prepared in the
following way: when we de-termine the device installation place, we
bring an FeZn strip (25x4 mm) up to that place; the strip is to be
connected to the earthing device or to the common earthing device of the
object considered. On the same location we define digging in of the
galvanised and coated pipe ø2.5"(inches) - the pillar, and at 1.0 (m)
height above the ground, we fasten an EL-1 N/S type device with a metal
clamp ø2.5"(inches) with two M8 metal screws. Concrete foot inside the
ground for an installation of the pipe - pillar, of h=1.0 (m) and the
length of the pipe within the concrete are to be defined by the designer
(our recommendation is 20 (cm)), or else the pillar itself may be
ordered by the EL-1 N/S type device manufacturer. The above ground part
of the pipe (the pillar), is to be coated first by the protection paint,
and then, starting from the ground: 25 (cm) of orange, 25 (cm) of white,
25 (cm) of orange, and 25 (cm) of white - the Law regulation which deals
with hazardous materials problems.
At 30 (cm) above the ground, an FeZn strip should be brought and
attached to the pipe ø2.5"(pillar). At the height of approx. 50 (cm) on
the pillar (pipe ø2.5"), a rack for the cable PF/J 1 x 10 (mm2) and the
crocodile clip should be fastened. With an automatic winder, we do not
need the rack, since an automatic winder would wind the PF/J cable
FeZn strip attachment spot on the pillar should have a hole ø6 (x3) for
screw attachment (or a cross-like piece, JUS M B1 601). FeZn strip has
holes on itself, of ø6 (x2), which should be made with necessary spaces
between and among the holes. From the top of the hole ø6 (x1) a cable
foot of 10 (mm2) is fastened for the cable PF/J 1x10 (mm2). (The place
where FeZn strip is fas-tened is one of the measuring spots for the
resis-tance measurement of that earthing device). The pillar may be
delivered, and may also be made in the above described way.
A complete device is to be fastened on to the pil-lar (pipe ø2.5") by a
metal clamp of ø2.5" with two M8 screws, each. (If it is necessary for
the customer to have the pillar (complete, coated) delivered with the
device, it should be stated so in the order.)
The work protection measures have fully been respected, for there is no
possibility of high volt-age occurrence on an EL-1 N/S type device
(since the device is not electrically supplied). It is neces-sary to
install an EL-1 N/S type device in the lightning-conductor protection
zone at the refuel-ling locations. Neither can the employees at the
refuelling spot, norcan the visitors at the refuel-ling spot, get hurt
or killed by the EL-1 N/S type device.
From the fire protection measures' point of view, an EL-1 N/S type
device represents no danger, since its character is passive. In fact,
the device is made in an explosion proof protection perform-ance, and
operates only during operation of static charge elimination - it
performs power equalisa-tion of electrostatic energy between the
consid-ered power heaps under control, in order to avoid cumulative
discharge, and after the elimination is over, the device is in the stand
still state (operat-ing condition).
It is necessary to check and to functionally test the EL-1 N/S type
device each 12 months from an authorised institution, or by an
authorised person (specialist in the field of applied electrostatics -
static charge, who are authorised by the manufac-turer of EL-1 N/S type
Here are some terms used in this text:
pouring locations - places where inflammable gases or liquids are
poured from or into truck-tanks, railway-tanks, ship (tankers) and
• pouring spot
- is a part of the pouring location aimed for filling or emptying of
larger number of volume compartments with liquid or gaseous phase.
• refuelling of
hazardous materials - means fuelling (in or out of the volume
compartment) of liquid and gaseous phases.
• transport of
hazardous materials - refers to the transport of all kinds of
phases in the road, railway, maritime, and air traffic.
materials' phase may be: a liquid, gaseous, solid, and pulverous
• liquid phase
of the considered hazardous materials - in our case refers to the
petroleum and petro-leum products, as well as to other inflammable
• gaseous phase
of the considered hazardous materials - in our case refers to
• solid phase
of the considered hazardous materials - in our case refers to solid
inflammable and explosive materials.
phase of the considered hazardous materials - in our case refers
to various solid in-flammable materials in pulverous form.
• terminal -
is a place where fuelling of inflammable liquids and gases in larger
quantities takes place.
of inflammable solid and pulverous and explosive materials - refers to
loading and unloading of the mentioned materials at locations approved
for this purpose.
6.0 Operating instructions for EL-1
N/S type device
Use and installation of EL-1 N/S type device is made in compliance with
the "Regulation book on technical norms for protection from static
charge", ("Official paper of SFRY" no. 62/73, article 86, and also with
other similar regulations in the world (see item 1.2.)a).
6.1 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at pouring location
Use of EL-1 N/S type device at pouring location refers to the use of
this device in the standstill state of the dragged and attached
vehicles. Technological opera-tion which takes place at that time is
pour-ing/refuelling of the liquid and gaseous phase.
6.1.1 Car - fuelling spots
a) When a truck-tank vehicle,
comprising a liquid or gaseous phase (petroleum or petro-leum
products, inflammable gases or liq-uids), comes to the fuelling spot,
it is neces-sary to turn the truck-tank engine off, no matter whether
filling or emptying is to take place.
b) Having done the action stated under a), the "crocodile" clip should
be taken by hand, and the cable PF/J 1x10 (mm2), going from the EL-1
N/S type device to the truck-tank, slowly unwound. The cable unwinding
may either be hand-done from the rack, or auto-matically done by means
of an automatic winder. (However, the cable PF/J 1x10 (mm2) should
have been wound on the racks or on an automatic winder, before
perform-ing this action.)
c) Fasten the "crocodile" clip on the sprout (aimed for that purpose),
on the truck-tank (dragged or attached vehicle), and start with
fuelling (filling or emptying) of a liquid or a gaseous phase.
d) Having done the fuelling of the liquid or gaseous phase, it is
necessary to unfasten the "crocodile" clip off the truck-tank (dragged
or attached vehicle), the cable PF/J 1 x 10 (mm2) is to be wound on
the rack or on an automatic winder, aimed for that pur-pose. Place the
"crocodile" clip away, to its previous location.
e) Having performed the operations under a), b), c), and d), we may
finish the fuelling of the liquid and gaseous phase and allow the
truck-tank to start going in desired direction.
In case that the customer may want to
have a "crocodile" clamp instead of a clip delivered with the EL-1 N/S
type device, that should be pointed out in an order. Also, if the
customer wants to have an automatic winder for the cable PF/J 1x10
(mm2), delivered with the device, it should be stated in the order (the
device will then be marked: m.EL-1 N/S).
6.1.2 Railway, ship or tankers, and
aircraft fuelling spots
N/S type device is used with tanks (volume compartments - as a whole),
at railway, ship or tankers, and aircraft fuelling spots in the same way
as with the car fuelling spots - described under 6.1.1).
The designer may install more EL-1 N/S type de-vices at one fuelling
spot. If one volume com-partment - as a whole - is being considered, and
it has been attached to several EL-1 N/S type de-vices, then the
fuelling may start (or stop), at the very moment when all the devices
are connected (or separated) from the volume compartment.
The same applies to the case of only one or more dragged or attached
vehicles. Each of the dragged or attached vehicles has its own volume
compart-ment, but if one compartment is being fuelled, all volume
compartments of dragged vehicles should be connected by means of their
individual EL-1 N/S type device.
6.2 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at
reloading (loading and unloading) of explosives and solid inflammable
The usage procedure of the EL-1 N/S
type device at the reloading (loading and unloading) spots of explosives
and of solid inflammable materials is the same as stated under 6.1.1).
6.3 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at
truck-tanks, and on other dragged and attached vehi-cles during motion
The Legislator asks for static charge
elimination dur-ing motion of truck-tanks and of other dragged and
attached vehicles. This is being done by use of the EL-1 N/S type
device, in the way as to use the copper or steel-made rope,
cross-section 35 (mm2) (or big-ger) - instead of an ANTISTATIC STRIP -,
and to connect this rope with the volume compartment, over an EL-1 N/S
type device. For more detailed instruc-tions, please contact the
specialist in the field of ap-plied electrostatics.
The same problem is encountered with the vehicles which transport
explosives and solid inflammable materials, which means that what has
been stated under this paragraph also refers for that case. The question
of the usage of an EL-1 N/S type device with aircraft, ship and tankers,
and railway tanks during motion, is the question to be solved by a
spe-cialist in the field of applied electrostatics - static charge.
6.4 Use of EL-1 N/S type device at
truck-tanks (dragged and attac-hed vehicles), railway, ship or tankers,
and aircraft tanks, at fuelling spots of the terminal type
to Law regulations, each transportation vehicle (dragged and attached ),
must have an EL-1 N/S type device for static charge elimination,
fastened on itself, if it comes to a terminal for the considered phases
(solid, liquid, gaseous, and pulverous). For that purpose, in use today
is a solution named a single-pole ridge switch of "Ex" type
(shortcomings of which were listed under 2.0 - b) of this brochure).
For that purpose an EL-1 N/S type device may be used. The usage of an
EL-1 N/S type device is done according to item 6.1.) with a difference
that it gets fastened to an earthing conductor (FeZn strip) by means of
a crocodile clip or a clamp.
Hence, when a truck-tank enters a refinery, fuel-ling terminals for
petroleum and petroleum prod-ucts, as well as for gases, or if the
vehicles enter storage or manufacturing areas for transport of
inflammable liquids or the storages of explosives and solid inflammable
materials, - these vehicles must have a static charge elimination
device. It is a legal obligation. The same goes for the railway, ship or
tankers, and aircraft tanks.
There are no special demands for maintenance of EL-1 N/S
type device. It will be sufficient to study necessary instructions and
documentation about an EL-1 N/S type device, which is enclosed with the
device, and then to open the book on mainte-nance and inspection of an
EL-1 N/S type device. It will satisfy the demands for maintenance of
Care demands for an EL-1 N/S type device are: regular transport and
storage as well as regular maintenance and handling during its
exploitation, in compliance with demands referring to electrical devices
of an "Ex" kind of performance.
7.0 Maintenance, handling, storage,
and inspection of EL-1 N/S type device
Handling itself with an EL-1 N/S type
device causes no special problems for those who use this device. It is
only necessary to study the instruc-tions and documentation which follow
the device. In an internal organisation of the company where an EL-1 N/S
type device is used, there should be one employee who is to be given the
7.1 register each usage of an
EL-1 N/S type device in the maintenance and inspection book. This book
should contain: EL-1 N/S type device us-age period (time), name and
surname of the person (and its signature) who handles the de-vice,
name and surname of the person in charge of the truck- tank, railway,
ship or tanker, and aircraft tank, or other volume com-partments (with
its signature), the kind of phase (liquid or gaseous) which is being
fu-elled, with all characteristic data (kind of load, kind of
transported hazardous material, micro-climatic conditions at the time
of fuelling, etc.). The reason for that are possible undesired
con-sequences, which may take place at the fuelling spot, caused by
other permanent and potential dangers, not only by the static charge.
The reg-istered data will show the history of accidents and ways of
operation with an EL-1 N/S type device.
The same goes for the usage of an EL-1 N/S type device at the
reloading (loading and unloading) of explosives and solid inflam-mable
7.2 every seven days it is necessary to clean dust and other
dirt from the device, the ca-ble and the "crocodile" clip (or clamp),
with a clean cloth. During this operation the pillar itself should
also be cleaned (for which an EL-1 N/S type device is fastened).The
"crocodile" clip (or clamp) and its mecha-nism should be lubricated by
machine oil. (If there is an automatic winder, the same should also be
All activities and observed shortcomings, as well as the interventions
done, are to be registered in the maintenance book of the device.
7.3 Maintenance and inspection of an EL-1 N/S type device is in
charge of a technical super-visor at the fuelling spot or f the
reloading spot (loading and unloading) of explosives and of solid
inflammable materials, all in compliance with items 7.1.) and 7.2.).
7.4 The book on maintenance and inspection of an EL-1 N/S type
device is to be allowed for an inspection by authorised persons (inspec-tors,
police, court, and other authorised per-sons), and kept in accordance
with other documentation of the fuelling spot.
8.0 Inspection and testing of an
EL-1 N/S type device operation
Inspection and testing of an EL-1 N/S
type device is practically done with every single use of it. It's a
visual way of inspection and testing of an oper-ating efficiency of the
EL-1 N/S type device. This device is manufactured so that it is
necessary to perform a functional testing only, along with op-erational
check-up, each 12 (twelve) months, by an authorised institution or by an
authorised per-son, which may issue an adequate document about the
validity of the same. Functional testing of the device is performed by a
suitable equip-ment specially designed and manufactured, either on the
spot or in the laboratory. Decision on the place/location for functional
testing of the device, is brought by an authorised person - an inspector
(whose authorisation was approved by the manu-facturer of an EL-1 N/S
type device). After func-tional testing of an EL-1 N/S type device, the
usage of the EL-1 N/S type device may be allowed for the next 12 months
or less, or even a replace-ment of an EL-1 N/S type device may be
ordered. That decision is to be brought by an inspector (authorised by
the manufacturer of the device), after completion of a functional
testing and opera-tional check-up of the device.
Having completed the inspection and testing of the EL-1 N/S type device,
an authorised inspector issues a PROTOCOL ON INSPECTION AND TESTING OF
AN EL-1 N/S TYPE DEVICE. All operations performed with the EL-1 N/S type
device are to be registered (written down) in the book on maintenance
and in-spection of this device, and this is going to be an obligation
regarding operational and technological discipline.
9.0 How was the EL-1 N/S type
In 1985, the company
Energoinvest, Sarajevo, set up the project for a scientific research,
titled: "Studying of the static electricity phenomenon in the conditions
of exploitation, processing, trans-port, handling, and storage of
petroleum and petroleum products in the Petroleum Refinery, Bosanski
Brod". Investigating the problem from both the scientific and an expert
point of view, it has been noticed that the existing solution for the
static charge elimination during pour and trans-port of petroleum and
petroleum products, in-flammable gases and liquids, explosive materials
(explosives), and solid inflammable materials, was understated (in need
In 1987 a prototype of an EL-1 N/S type device was made, followed
by a verification of the EL-1 N/S type device, at the fuelling spots of
the termi-nal type, for petroleum, petroleum products, and liquid gas,
at the Petroleum Refinery, Bosanski Brod. The plant verification was
performed from Dec. 1987 till May, 1988, and was a full
In 1988 other kinds of testing of the device were made, both from a
scientific and from the specialist point of view, as well as the
construc-tion check-up, which all resulted in 1989 inform-ing the
specialists' public about occurrence of an EL-1 N/S type device. In that
same year the au-thor of the device was entrusted the task of the static
charge elimination at the fuelling spots in Istria, Slovenia, and
Dalmatia, and in 1990 in the city of Banjaluka.
Since 1990, the EL-1 N/S type device has started gaining
confidence with the investors in the region of former Yugoslavia (SFRY),
which resulted in its installations at the fuelling spots and in
transpor-tation vehicles used for petroleum and petroleum products,
inflammable gases and liquids, explosive materials (explosives), and
solid inflammable ma-terials.
At the exhibition 40th WORLD FAIR OF INVENTION, RESEARCH, AND INDUSTRIAL
INNOVATION, Anspach Centre Brussels, BRUSSELS EUREKA 1991, the
EL-1 N/S type de-vice has been awarded the GOLD MEDAL, and the
GOLD RULER by INPEX, America's Largest Inven-tion / New Product
Exposition, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
10.0 Short biography of the author of
an EL-1 N/S type device
MICO GACANOVIC, MS (B.Sc. in
Electrical Engineering) is the author of the STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION
DEVICE USED AT POUR AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS,
INFLAMMABLE GASES AND LIQUIDS, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS (EXPLOSIVES) AND
SOLID INFLAMMABLE MATERIALS, of EL-1 N/S type, commercially named EL-1
N/S type DEVICE.
He was born in 1952 in Donja Snjegotina, the municipality of ^elinac,
Banjaluka, by the father Vitomir, and the mother Jovanka. He is married
and has two children. His specialist field of work is that of an applied
electrostatics - static charge. He is the author of the SYSTEM FOR THE
STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION, type EL-1 and of other solutions in the field
of applied electrostatics - static charge. He has published a vast
number of scientific and specialist / expert works, and information out
of the field of applied electrostatics, both inside and outside the
country. He is the winner of large num-ber of awards and
acknowledgements, he gained in the country and abroad, for his
scientific and expert work, as follows:
OSCAR, for science and invention in the field of applied
electrostatics - static charge, awarded by ICEPEC - INSTITUT
COMMUNAUTAIRE EUROPEEN POUR LA PROMOTION DES ENTERPRISES COMMERCIALES,
EN RECONNAISSANCE DE SES HAUTES QUALITET PROFESSIONNELLES ET DE SON
INFLUENCE DANS L’ESPACE ECONOMIQUE EUROPEEN, Brussels, April 8, 1994.
• SPECIAL AWARD, Minister Jean - Pierre GRAFE, BRUSSELS
EUREKA ’94, 43rd WORLD EXHIBITION OF INVENTION, RESEARCH AND
INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION, for the invention of static charge elimination
device during pour, Brussels, November 14, 1994.
• EUREKA Award for innovations in the field of static
charge protection, ASSOCIATION OF JOURNALISTS OF SERBIA, SECTION OF
JOURNALISTS FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Belgrade, May 19, 1994.
• DAVID STRBAC STATUE for “Oscar results” in the scientific
research achieved with dedication and persistency like Ko~i}’s,
awarded by the Zmijanje Association, Banja Luka, June 28, 1994.
• RECOGNITION for theoretical contribution by his work:
"A NEW SOLUTION FOR THE STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATOR", 7th International
Conference on Electrostatic Phenomena held at St. Catherine's College,
ELECTROSTATICS 1987, Oxford, 1987.
• GOLD MEDAL, at the 39th WORLD FAIR OF INVENTION,
RESEARCH, AND INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION, Anspach Centre Brussels, BRUSSELS
EUREKA 1990, for the solution: "EL-1 TYPE STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATOR",
• GOLD MEDAL at the 19th INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF
INVENTIONS, NEW TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTS, GENEVA 1991, for the
solution: "STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM, type EL-1", Geneva 1991.
• GOLD MEDAL, at INPEX VII, America's Largest Invention / New
Product Exposition, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 1991, for the solution:
"STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM, type EL-1", Pittsburgh, 1991.
• GOLD MEDAL, at the 40th WORLD FAIR OF INVENTION,
RESEARCH, AND INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION, Anspach Centre Brussels, BRUSSELS
EUREKA 1991, for the solution: "STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION DEVICE
DURING POUR AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS,
INFLAMMABLE GASES AND LIQUIDS, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS (EXPLOSIVES), AND
SOLID INFLAMMABLE MATERIALS, TYPE EL-1 N/S", Brussels 1991.
• GOLD RULER, at the 40th WORLD FAIR OF INVENTION,
RESEARCH AND INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION, Anspach Centre Brussels, BRUSSELS
EUREKA 1991, by INPEX, America's Largest In-vention / New Product
Exposition, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, for the solution: "STATIC CHARGE
ELIMINATION DEVICE DURING POUR AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM AND
PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, INFLAMMABLE GASES AND LIQUIDS, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS
(EXPLOSIVES), AND OF SOLID INFLAMMABLE MATERIALS, type EL-1 N/S",
• GOLD MEDAL, at EXPO 1991, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 1991, for
the solution: "STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM, type EL-1", Plovdiv,
• YUGOSLAV TRADE UNION FEDERATION COUNCIL MEDALLION, Innovation
Co-ordination Staff, Belgrade, 1988, for innovations in the field of
applied electrostatics - static charge, Belgrade, 1988.
• GOLD - DIAMOND MEDAL, awarded by the Development and
research center Milentije Ran|elovi}, Belgrade, for the invention of
STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATOR, Belgrade - Banja Luka, 1994.
• SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT, Serb Academy of science,
Belgrade, Association of inventors and authors of technical
improvements, Belgrade, for exceptional achievements in developing and
promoting innovations, applying innovations, and contributing to the
development and promotion of the organization of Association of
inventors, Belgrade, 1994.
• GOLD MEDALS at: RAST YU 1981, INOVA 1984, BELGRADE
FAIR 1987, etc., for the innovations in the field of applied
electrostatics - static charge.
• MONOGRAPH of the town of LIEGE, for contribution in
researching and solving static charge elimination; awarded by the
President of Brussels Eureka, Mr. Jose LORIAUX, Brussels, November 10,
• GOLD MEDAL at the exhibition MAGYAR FELTALAKOK EGYESULETE
“GENIUS ‘96”, Budapest, 1996.
• SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT for the innovation of “SYSTEM
FOR STATIC CHARGE ELIMINATION” at the exhibition “TESLA FEST ‘97”,
Novi Sad, 1997.
• FIRST MONEY AWARD by the insurance company “Croatia” Zagreb
at the exhibition RAST JU 1983 for the innovation of STATIC CHARGE
ELIMINATOR, type EL-1, Rijeka, 1983.
• DIPLOMAS for innovations in the field of applied
electrostatics - static charge, by the Yugoslav Association of
inventors and innovators, Belgrade, 1994; INOST Banja Luka, 1994;
Association of inventors and authors of technical improvements,
Belgrade, 1992; Association of inventors of Ser-bia, 1992; Association
of inventors INCEL Banja Luka, 1984 and 1987; etc.
• ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS by Chambers of Commerce: of Istria
(1986), Slovenia (1988), Sarajevo (1984 and 1990) for succesful and
efficient innovations in the field of static charge elimination in
industrial workshops of the industry of mentioned regions.
In 1976, he has graduated from the
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Sarajevo, majoring in the applied
electrostatics - static charge, defending his Master's Thesis in 1983,
at the Faculty of Electrical Engi-neering, Zagreb, also from the field
of applied electrostatics - static target. At present, he is working on
his doctoral dissertation, also in the field of applied electrostatics -
He is associate at several Faculties of Electrical Engineering and
Institutes in the region of former Yugo-slavia (SFRY), as the specialist
for the field of applied electrostatics - static charge, He also
co-operates with a few associations, institutions, and companies in the
world, which deal with the problem of ap-plied electrostatics - static
charge, and electrical engineering sciences in general.
He has been employed with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering,
Banjaluka, at the Banjaluka University.
11.0 How to order EL-1 N/S type device
and guarantee terms
order the device for static charge elimination during pour and
transport of petroleum and petroleum products, inflammable gases and
liquids, explosive materials (explosives), and solid inflammable
materials, type EL-1 N/S, it is necessary to fill in the enclosed form
of an order, and mail it at the address of an authorised
representative of the author for this device, or at the author's
guarantee terms for the EL-1 N/S type device are stated in the
form for the EL-1 N/S type device will be delivered together with
the enclosed documentation at the delivery date of the device to the
period for the EL-1 N/S type device is 12 (twelve) months from the
date of delivery to the customer, which is in compliance with the Law
on standardisation, "Official paper of SFRY" no. 37/88, article 64.
parts, maintenance and repair service for the EL-1 N/S type device
are provided by the manufacturer.
M.Gacanovic; DEVICE type EL
- 1 N/S, ©Copyright 1997 by MG
Mićo Gaćanović M.Sc.Eng.
ul. Sime Miljusa 92
78000 Banja Luka
Tel: +387(0)51-306 767
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